NURS6521: Rheumatoid Arthritis Discussion

Want create site? With Free visual composer you can do it easy.

NURS6521: Rheumatoid Arthritis Discussion

NURS6521: Rheumatoid Arthritis Discussion

A 66-year-old woman has experienced a significant decline in her quality of life as a result of worsening rheumatoid arthritis. Her physician has prescribed etanercept and the APRN is responsible for facilitating this new aspect of the patient’s drug regimen.

NURS6521: Rheumatoid Arthritis

NURS6521: Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive autoimmune disease of unknown cause. It is characterized by
persistent inflammation that primarily affects the peripheral joints. It usually starts as an insidious symmetrical
arthritis and has an unpredictable and variable course, although pain and disability can be minimized if the
condition is recognized early and treated promptly and appropriately.
Epidemiology and Economics
• Prevalence varies from 0.5% to 1.5% of the population.
• RA affects more women than men (ratio 3:1).
• The age of onset is between 30 and 55 years.
• RA results in progressive disability, with nearly half of all patients experiencing significant functional
impairment within 10 years.
• RA shortens life expectancy by a number of years in both men and women.
Pathophysiology
• Pathogenesis involves multiple factors, including both genetic and environmental influences.
• Immune cells and soluble inflammatory mediators play a crucial role in the pathogenesis, although the
relative contribution of individual components remains uncertain.
• Proliferation of cells in the synovial layer of the joint, together with infiltration by various cell populations,
as orchestrated by cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and hormones, produces a locally invasive
pannus that is capable of invading and ultimately destroying cartilage, bone, and surrounding soft tissues.
Clinical Features
• RA presents as a symmetrical polyarthritis affecting the small joints of the hands and feet.
• The onset is most often insidious but can be episodic or acute.
• Inflamed joints become swollen, painful, and stiff. Synovial fluid may accumulate, causing an effusion.
Joint pain is usually more prominent and more persistent than in osteoarthritis, occurring at rest, at night,
and on activity. Prolonged early morning stiffness is also a key diagnostic feature suggestive of
inflammatory disease.
• In addition to causing peripheral symptoms, RA may also involve the cervical spine, causing pain in the
neck and occipital headache.
• Pain may also occur as a result of temporomandibular joint disease.
• Uncontrolled disease eventually results in inflammation spreading beyond the synovium of the joint to
other nearby structures, including the tenosynovium of tendons, ligaments, other soft-tissue structures,
and bone. Subcutaneous nodules can occur in more severe disease and are associated with a worse
prognosis.
• Extra-articular features are common and may involve multiple organs, including the skin, eyes, lungs, and
blood vessels.

ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT:NURS6521: Rheumatoid Arthritis Discussion 

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.