NUR641E Pharmacodynamics Discussion
NUR641E Pharmacodynamics Discussion
Create a 7-8 slide presentation with speaker notes about a selected disease process and drug class. The presentation should provide content specific information on the selected disease process and drug class for staff or students in a clinical environment.
Follow these steps:
Select a disease process and a drug class used to treat the disease process.
Describe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug related to the pathophysiology of the disease process.
Describe the product, its intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues.
Identify ethnic, cultural, and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications.
How would you monitor the desired affect is achieved?
What is Pharmacodynamics ?
Digit symbol substitution test: In study 2 (single-ascending dose),
desvenlafaxine did not significantly affect DSST scores over the dose
range studied, and no trend for DSST scores to increase or decrease
with dose was detected. In study 3 (multiple-ascending dose), the 300
mg dose group scored somewhat better at later time points than at
baseline, whereas the 450 mg, 600 mg, and placebo groups produced
similar scores at all time points. All pairwise comparisons were
exploratory, but they indicated that the 300 mg dose group performed
significantly better in the DSST than the placebo group on day 1 (hour
7) (p=0.027) and day 13 (preadministration) (p=0.019). At other time
points, the 300 mg group appeared to have higher mean DSST scores
than the placebo group, but these observed differences did not attain
Word-recall tests: Following test article administration in study 2
(single-ascending dose) and study 3 (multiple-ascending dose), there
were no significant differences among the treatment groups in terms
of immediate or delayed word recall. In study 3, the mean percentage
of words retained (number of words recalled after an approximate
30 minute delay divided by number of words recalled immediately
after their presentation) ranged from 54% (450 mg) to 76% (placebo)
at 3 hours postdose, and 72% (placebo) to 86% (300 mg) at 13 days
postdose. A trend analysis of the immediate- and delayed-word-recall
tests found no dose effect.
Electroencephalograph results: In study 2 (single-ascending
dose), a trend analysis of EEG data demonstrated a significant increase
in relative slow beta in F3T3 at desvenlafaxine doses 600 mg and higher,
in relative fast beta in F3T3 at desvenlafaxine doses 225 mg and higher,
in absolute slow and fast beta in F4T4, and in absolute theta and fast
beta in T4O2 after the desvenlafaxine 900 mg dose.
Pairwise comparisons indicated significant increases in absolute
beta energies in all EEG leads with desvenlafaxine doses of 450 mg or
greater, particularly in the frontotemporal lobes, where beta is more
pronounced. These increases were associated with decreases in the
lower EEG ranges. Interestingly, the changes in fast beta were more
pronounced at 2 hours than at 7 hours postdose, and thus did not
correspond with plasma desvenlafaxine Cmax values. Compared with
placebo, venlafaxine 150 mg did not produce any significant changes
in EEG results.
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.