NUR 2349 Assignment Hypothermia and Hyperthermia Worksheet

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NUR 2349 Assignment Hypothermia and Hyperthermia Worksheet

 

NUR 2349 Assignment Hypothermia and Hyperthermia Worksheet

Your written assignment for this module is a worksheet that
describes the following:

The difference between hypothermia and hyperthermia and the
impact to the patient?

Patient education for client and family in order to avoid
extreme temperature variations?

You should be using complete sentences to answer the
questions. Ensure that you are using correct grammar. In addition, support your
answers using your textbook, course materials, credible internet resources, and
scholarly journals. All citations must be in APA format.

Please click here to download the Hypothermia and
Hyperthermia Worksheet.

Submit your completed assignment by following the directions
linked below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.

Name:

Date:

Complete all of your lesson materials and assigned readings.
Make sure that you are focusing on:

• The
difference between hypothermia and hyperthermia and the impact to the patient?

• Patient
education for client and family in order to avoid extreme temperature
variations?

You should be using complete sentences to answer the
questions. Ensure that you are using correct grammar. In addition, support your
answers using your textbook, course materials, credible internet resources, and
scholarly journals. SkyScape is a great suggestion for assistance in completion
of this assignment. All citations must be in APA format. 1 Point

1. What is
the difference between hypothermia and hyperthermia and how does each one
impact the patient? 2 Points

2. What
education can you give to your patient and family to avoid the extreme
temperature variations? 2 Points

Hypothermia is often defined as any body temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). With this method it is divided into degrees of severity based on the core temperature.[9]

Another classification system, the Swiss staging system, divides hypothermia based on the presenting symptoms which is preferred when it is not possible to determine an accurate core temperature.[2]

Other cold-related injuries that can be present either alone or in combination with hypothermia include:

  • Chilblains: condition caused by repeated exposure of skin to temperatures just above freezing. The cold causes damage to small blood vessels in the skin. This damage is permanent and the redness and itching will return with additional exposure. The redness and itching typically occurs on cheeks, ears, fingers, and toes.[10]
  • Frostbite: the freezing and destruction of tissue[11]
  • Frostnip: a superficial cooling of tissues without cellular destruction[12]
  • Trench foot or immersion foot: a condition caused by repetitive exposure to water at non-freezing temperatures[11]

The normal human body temperature is often stated as 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F).[13] Hyperthermia and fever, are defined as a temperature of greater than 37.5–38.3 °C (99.5–100.9 °F).[8]

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms vary depending on the degree of hypothermia, and may be divided by the three stages of severity. Infants with hypothermia may feel cold when touched, with bright red skin and an unusual lack of energy.[14]

Mild

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Symptoms of mild hypothermia may be vague,[15] with sympathetic nervous system excitation (shivering, high blood pressurefast heart ratefast respiratory rate, and contraction of blood vessels). These are all physiological responses to preserve heat.[16] Increased urine production due to cold, mental confusion, and liver dysfunction may also be present.[17] Hyperglycemia may be present, as glucose consumption by cells and insulin secretion both decrease, and tissue sensitivity to insulin may be blunted.[18] Sympathetic activation also releases glucose from the liver. In many cases, however, especially in people with alcoholic intoxication, hypoglycemia appears to be a more common cause.[18] Hypoglycemia is also found in many people with hypothermia, as hypothermia may be a result of hypoglycemia.[19]

Moderate

As hypothermia progresses, symptoms include: mental status changes such as amnesia, confusion, slurred speech, decreased reflexes, and loss of fine motor skills.[20]

Severe

As the temperature decreases, further physiological systems falter and heart raterespiratory rate, and blood pressure all decrease. This results in an expected heart rate in the 30s at a temperature of 28 °C (82 °F).[17]

There is often cold, inflamed skin, hallucinations, lack of reflexes, fixed dilated pupils, low blood pressure, pulmonary edema, and shivering is often absent.[20] Pulse and respiration rates decrease significantly, but fast heart rates (ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation) can also occur. Atrial fibrillation is not typically a concern in and of itself.[2]

Paradoxical undressing

Twenty to fifty percent of hypothermia deaths are associated with paradoxical undressing. This typically occurs during moderate and severe hypothermia, as the person becomes disoriented, confused, and combative. They may begin discarding their clothing, which, in turn, increases the rate of heat loss.[21][22]

Rescuers who are trained in mountain survival techniques are taught to expect this; however, people who die from hypothermia in urban environments are sometimes incorrectly assumed to have been subjected to sexual assault.[23]

One explanation for the effect is a cold-induced malfunction of the hypothalamus, the part of the brain that regulates body temperature. Another explanation is that the muscles contracting peripheral blood vessels become exhausted (known as a loss of vasomotor tone) and relax, leading to a sudden surge of blood (and heat) to the extremities, causing the person to feel overheated.[23][24] Another potential explanation is that in times of extreme thermal distress, an instinct kicks in to remove clothing that may restrict blood flow around the body, for example anything elasticated.[citation needed]

Terminal burrowing

An apparent self-protective behaviour, known as “terminal burrowing”, or “hide-and-die syndrome”,[25] occurs in the final stages of hypothermia. The afflicted will enter small, enclosed spaces, such as underneath beds or behind wardrobes. It is often associated with paradoxical undressing.[26] Researchers in Germany claim this is “obviously an autonomous process of the brain stem, which is triggered in the final state of hypothermia and produces a primitive and burrowing-like behavior of protection, as seen in hibernating animals”.[27] This happens mostly in cases where temperature drops slowly.[24]

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