NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence Development of Psychopathology DQ

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NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence Development of Psychopathology DQ

NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence Development of Psychopathology DQ

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WEEK 1 DISCUSSION

Introduction

Psychopathology involves the scientific study of mental conditions. Psychopathology helps in understanding how the mind of an individual works. There are various ways an individual may develop mental disorders; thus, the study of psychopathology helps understand how an individual develops mental disorders (Beauchaine, Constantino & Hayden, 2018). Psychopathology research seeks to present a better idea of how the various mental conditions need to be treated (Wright & Woods, 2020). Moreover, this study involves the study of mental illnesses and covers the treatment or diagnosis of mental illnesses. This paper will examine the factors that influence the development of psychopathology, including psychological, biological, social, interpersonal, and cultural factors.

NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence Development of Psychopathology DQ

Biological Factors

The influence of biological factors on the development of psychopathology has been developed for some time. It is estimated that at least 40-70 percent of mental health disorders are linked to genetic factors (Ota et al., 2020). The clinician, therefore, needs to understand a patient’s family history of mental disorders to assist in treatment and diagnosis. For instance, gene expression has been found in various psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, alcoholism, and an autism spectrum disorder.

Research shows a connection between epigenetics and neurobiology that impact the development of a psychiatric disorder (Shrivastava, De Sousa & Lodha, 2019). Epigenetic mechanisms including histone modification and DNA methylation tend to determine the gene activity. The mental disorders may also result from the alternation of the gene expression in pathways. The environment also affects gene expression.

Psychological Factors

Also, the development of psychopathology is influenced by psychological factors. Psychological factors that result from stress and life experiences risk an individual developing mental disorder. Moreover, individuals genetically vulnerable to certain mental disorders are likely to develop a psychiatric disorder due to negative thinking. Various internal psychological factors influence the development of psychopathology (Malim, 2017). For instance, the various parts of the brain are known to influence psychology. The limbic system regulates anxiety, fear, or emotional response linked to anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, and depression. Moreover, the factors related to psychological development influence psychopathology. For example, puberty timing can result in depression among adolescents.

Social/ Cultural/ Interpersonal Factors

Various external factors such as social influence, interpersonal relationships, and culture impact the development of psychopathology. Pediatrics or adolescents exposed to external factors such as domestic violence and maltreatment are at an increased risk of developing various psychiatric conditions (McCrory, Gerin & Viding, 2017). Moreover, growing in an environment with limited economic resources may influence the development of psychopathology. Poor interpersonal relationships that result in isolation by peers may influence the development of psychopathology (Luyten, 2017). Different cultures have diverse views regarding the development of mental conditions (Moleiro, 2018). Cultural factors affect how an individual deals with certain mental illnesses (Cheung & Mak, 2018). For instance, in some cultures, mental illnesses may be linked to evil spirits. Moreover, some people such as the immigrant’s may suffer difficulty adapting to new cultures, which in turn contributes to the development of psychopathology.

Conclusion

In conclusion, psychopathology impacts how individuals react in real-life situations since the body is closely related to the mind. Psychopathology impacts the functioning of an individual’s mind. The study of psychopathology helps to understand how an individual develops various mental disorders. Understanding the development of psychopathology helps the medical practitioner develop a treatment plan and diagnosis of a patient. As a nurse practitioner, there is a need to consider the psychological, cultural, social, interpersonal, and biological factors that influence the development of psychopathology.

 

References

Beauchaine, T. P., Constantino, J. N., & Hayden, E. P. (2018). Psychiatry and developmental psychopathology: Unifying themes and future directions. Comprehensive psychiatry87, 143-152.

Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology.

Luyten, P. (2017). Personality, psychopathology, and health through the lens of interpersonal relatedness and self-definition. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 65(3), 473-489.

Malim, T. (2017). Introductory psychology. Macmillan International Higher Education.

McCrory, E. J., Gerin, M. I., & Viding, E. (2017). Annual research review: childhood maltreatment, latent vulnerability and the shift to preventative psychiatry–the contribution of functional brain imaging. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry58(4), 338-357.

Moleiro, C. (2018). Culture and psychopathology: New perspectives on research, practice, and clinical training in a globalized world. Frontiers in psychiatry, 9, 366.

Ota, V. K., Santoro, M. L., Spindola, L. M., Pan, P. M., Simabucuro, A., Xavier, G., … & Belangero, S. I. (2020). Gene expression changes associated with trajectories of psychopathology in a longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents. Translational psychiatry10(1), 1-9.

Shrivastava, A., De Sousa, A., & Lodha, P. (2019). Resilience as a psychopathological construct for psychiatric disorders. In Frontiers in Psychiatry (pp. 479-489). Springer, Singapore.

Wright, A. G., & Woods, W. C. (2020). Personalized models of psychopathology. Annual review of clinical psychology, 16, 49-74.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Blend Images
In many realms of medicine, objective diagnoses can be made: A clavicula is broken.  An infection is
present. TSH levels meet the diagnostic criteria for hypothyroidism. Psychiatry, on the other hand, deals
with psychological phenomena and behaviors. Can these, too, be “defined objectively and by scientific
criteria (Gergen, 1985), or are they social constructions?” (Sadock et al., 2015).
Thanks to myriad advances during recent decades, we know that psychopathology is caused by many
interacting factors. Theoretical and clinical contributions to the field have come from the neural
sciences, genetics, psychology, and social-cultural sciences. How do these factors impact the expression,
classification, diagnosis, and prevalence of psychopathology, and why might it be important for a nurse
practitioner to take a multidimensional, integrative approach?
To Prepare:
 Review this week’s Learning Resources, considering the many interacting factors that contribute
to the development of psychopathology.
 Consider how theoretical perspective on psychopathology impacts the work of the PMHNP.
By Day 3 of Week 1
Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes,
emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the
development of psychopathology.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses
By Day 6 of Week 1
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days by explaining the implications of why, as
an advanced practice nurse, it is important to adopt a multidimensional, integrative model of
psychopathology.
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view
and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the "Post to Discussion Question" link, and
then select "Create Thread" to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you
cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully
before clicking on Submit!
Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:
Week 1 Discussion
Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric's layout.
Name: NRNP_6635_Week1_Discussion_Rubric

Exit

 Grid View
 List View
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting:
Response to the discussion
question is reflective with
critical analysis and
synthesis representative of
knowledge gained from the
course readings for the
module and current credible
sources.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)
Thoroughly responds to the
discussion question(s).
Is reflective with critical
analysis and synthesis
representative of knowledge
gained from the course
readings for the module and
current credible sources.
No less than 75% of post has
exceptional depth and
breadth.
Supported by at least 3 current
credible sources.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)
Responds to most of the
discussion question(s).
Is somewhat reflective with
critical analysis and synthesis
representative of knowledge
gained from the course
readings for the module.
50% of the post has
exceptional depth and
breadth.
Supported by at least 3
credible references.

31 (31%) – 34 (34%)
Responds to some of the
discussion question(s).
One to two criteria are not
addressed or are superficially
addressed.
Is somewhat lacking reflection
and critical analysis and
synthesis.
Somewhat represents
knowledge gained from the
course readings for the
module.
Post is cited with fewer than 2
credible references.

0 (0%) – 30 (30%)
Does not respond to the
discussion question(s).
Lacks depth or superficially
addresses criteria.
Lacks reflection and critical
analysis and synthesis.
Does not represent knowledge
gained from the course
readings for the module.
Contains only 1 or no credible
references.

Main Posting:
Writing

6 (6%) – 6 (6%)
Written clearly and concisely.
Contains no grammatical or
spelling errors.

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Written concisely.
May contain one to two
grammatical or spelling errors.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Written somewhat concisely.
May contain more than two
spelling or grammatical errors.

0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Not written clearly or
concisely.
Contains more than two
spelling or grammatical errors.

Further adheres to current
APA manual writing rules and
style.

Adheres to current APA
manual writing rules and style.

Contains some APA formatting
errors. Does not adhere to current
APA manual writing rules and
style.

Main Posting:
Timely and full participation

9 (9%) – 10 (10%)
Meets requirements for timely,
full, and active participation.
Posts main discussion by due
date.

8 (8%) – 8 (8%)
Posts main discussion by due
date.
Meets requirements for full

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participation.

7 (7%) – 7 (7%)
Posts main discussion by due
date.

0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Does not meet requirements
for full participation.
Does not post main discussion
by due date.

First Response:
Post to colleague's main
post that is reflective and
justified with credible
sources.

9 (9%) – 9 (9%)
Response exhibits critical
thinking and application to
practice settings.
Responds to questions posed
by faculty.
The use of scholarly sources
to support ideas demonstrates
synthesis and understanding
of learning objectives.

8 (8%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth
and may exhibit critical
thinking or application to
practice setting.

7 (7%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may
have some depth.

0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on
topic, lacks depth.

First Response:
Writing

6 (6%) – 6 (6%)
Communication is professional
and respectful to colleagues.
Response to faculty questions
are fully answered, if posed.
Provides clear, concise
opinions and ideas that are
supported by two or more
credible sources.
Response is effectively written
in Standard, Edited English.

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Communication is mostly
professional and respectful to
colleagues.
Response to faculty questions
are mostly answered, if posed.
Provides opinions and ideas
that are supported by few
credible sources.
Response is written in
Standard, Edited English.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Response posed in the
discussion may lack effective
professional communication.
Response to faculty questions
are somewhat answered, if
posed.
Few or no credible sources
are cited.

0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Responses posted in the
discussion lack effective
communication.
Response to faculty questions
are missing.
No credible sources are cited.

First Response:
Timely and full participation

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for timely,
full, and active participation.
Posts by due date.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Meets requirements for full
participation.
Posts by due date.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Does not meet requirements
for full participation.
Does not post by due date.

Second Response: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%) 8 (8%) – 8 (8%) 7 (7%) – 7 (7%) 0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Post to colleague's main
post that is reflective and
justified with credible
sources.

Response exhibits critical
thinking and application to
practice settings.
Responds to questions posed
by faculty.
The use of scholarly sources
to support ideas demonstrates
synthesis and understanding
of learning objectives.

Response has some depth
and may exhibit critical
thinking or application to
practice setting.

Response is on topic, may
have some depth.

Response may not be on
topic, lacks depth.

Second Response:
Writing

6 (6%) – 6 (6%)
Communication is professional
and respectful to colleagues.
Response to faculty questions
are fully answered, if posed.
Provides clear, concise
opinions and ideas that are
supported by two or more
credible sources.
Response is effectively written
in Standard, Edited English.

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Communication is mostly
professional and respectful to
colleagues.
Response to faculty questions
are mostly answered, if posed.
Provides opinions and ideas
that are supported by few
credible sources.
Response is written in
Standard, Edited English.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Response posed in the
discussion may lack effective
professional communication.
Response to faculty questions
are somewhat answered, if
posed.
Few or no credible sources
are cited.

0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Responses posted in the
discussion lack effective
communication.
Response to faculty questions
are missing.
No credible sources are cited.

Second Response:
Timely and full participation

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for timely,
full, and active participation.
Posts by due date.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Meets requirements for full
participation.
Posts by due date.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Does not meet requirements
for full participation.
Does not post by due date.

Total Points: 100
Name: NRNP_6635_Week1_Discussion_Rubric

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