NR 505 Exploring Research Results Discussion

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NR 505 Exploring Research Results Discussion

NR 505 Exploring Research Results Discussion


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Using the following steps found within the translation phase of the Practice Evidence Translation (PET) model developed by Johns Hopkins, select a research result reported in a journal article that supports your PICOT/PICo question. Please respond to the following steps. Please note that wording of the steps may have been modified slightly from the PET so that they help with this posting. Include the permalink at the end of your posting.

  • Using references, identity the research result that you could use in your practice setting.
  • Determine fit, feasibility, and appropriateness of the result for your practice setting.
  • Using Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA), outline an action plan.
  • Identify the resources (physical, personal, technology) needed to implement your action plan.
  • Determine the criteria that you would use to determine whether the implementation of your project was successful.
  • Identify one future research study that would be useful in extending knowledge of your selected project result.Exploring Research Methodology: Review Article
    Mimansha Patel1
    , Nitin Patel2
    1Executive QA, Department of Quality Assurance, Mylan Laboratories Ltd. Sarigam,
    2Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Government Engineering College Valsad, India
    Corresponding Author: Mimansha Patel
    Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as
    a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are
    generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them.
    It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods/techniques but also the
    methodology. Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests, how to
    calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation or chi-square, how to apply
    particular research techniques, but they also need to know which of these methods or techniques, are
    relevant and which are not, and what would they mean and indicate and why. Researchers also need to
    understand the assumptions underlying various techniques and they need to know the criteria by
    which they can decide that certain techniques and procedures will be applicable to certain problems
    and others will not. All this means that it is necessary for the researcher to design his methodology for
    his problem as the same may differ from problem to problem.
    Keywords: Research, Methodology, Research Methodology, Research Techniques, Qualitative
    research, Quantitative Research
    Research in common parlance refers
    to a search for knowledge. Once can also
    define research as a scientific and
    systematic search for pertinent information
    on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art
    of scientific investigation. The Advanced
    Learner‟s Dictionary of Current English
    lays down the meaning of research as “a
    careful investigation or inquiry specially
    through search for new facts in any branch
    of knowledge.” [1] Redman and Mory define
    research as a “systematized effort to gain
    new knowledge.” [2]
    Methodology is the systematic,
    theoretical analysis of the methods applied
    to a field of study. It comprises the
    theoretical analysis of the body of methods
    and principles associated with a branch of
    knowledge. Typically, it encompasses
    concepts such as paradigm, theoretical
    model, phases and quantitative or qualitative
    techniques. [3]
    Research Methodology is science of
    studying how research is done scientifically.
    A way to systematically solve the research
    problem by logically adopting various steps.
    Methodology helps to understand not only
    the products of scientific inquiry but the
    process itself. Research Methodology aims
    to describe and analyze methods, throw
    light on their limitations and resources,
    clarify their limitations and resources,
    clarify their presuppositions and
    consequences, relating their potentialities to
    the twilight zone at the „frontiers of
    knowledge‟. [4]
    Objectives of Research
    Mimansha Patel Exploring Research Methodology: Review Article
    International Journal of Research & Review ( 49
    Vol.6; Issue: 3; March 2019
    The purpose of research is to discover
    answers to questions through the application
    of scientific procedures. The main aim of
    research is to find out the truth which is
    hidden and which has not been discovered
    as yet. Though each research study has its
    own specific purpose, we may think of
    research objectives as falling into a number
    of following broad groupings:
    1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or
    to achieve new insights into it (studies with
    this object in view are termed as exploratory
    or formulative research studies);
    2. To portray accurately the characteristics
    of a particular individual, situation or a
    group (studies with this object in view are
    known as descriptive research studies);
    3. To determine the frequency with which
    something occurs or with which it is
    associated with something else (studies with
    this object in view are known as diagnostic
    research studies);
    4. To test a hypothesis of a causal
    relationship between variables (such studies
    are known as hypothesis-testing research
    studies). [5]
    Types of Research
    Research can be classified on the
    basis of time, purpose, settings, place and
    technique. Some researches have
    similarities and some have little variations.
    But all the types of research have its own
    Basic Research: It is also called as pure
    research. Research for the sake of
    enhancement of knowledge is termed as
    Basic Research. It is done with the intention
    of overpowering of the unknown facts. It is
    concerned with the generalizations and also
    with the formulation of new theory. Basic
    research may not produce solutions or
    results to the present problem but it
    contributes something to the scientific
    knowledge. Though its work may have zero
    importance, but it may become useful in the
    Applied Research: It is also called as
    practical research or „need based‟ research.
    The main intention is to find solutions to the
    current problems being faced by an
    institution, society, business or in
    government offices. Research to identify
    social, political and economic changes,
    which has adverse effects in different
    sectors are some of the examples of applied
    research. This type of research is mainly
    carried on with the secondary data.
    Empirical Research: It is often referred to
    as experimental research. In this primary
    data is collected, analyzed, interpretation is
    done and subjected to hypothesis testing.
    Researcher should develop his experimental
    designs and should provide working
    hypothesis before the commencement of his
    research for good output.
    Qualitative Research: As the name itself
    suggests, this research is concerned with the
    qualitative process. It generally works with
    the study of human behavior. By this
    research one can find the body language,
    attitude, opinions, feelings etc. from the
    opposite person through observation. It is
    mainly helpful for Psychiatrists and
    interviewers. Many techniques are being
    used like word association test, sentence
    completion, drawing pictures, Thematic
    Apperception Test. It is needed in times
    where quantitative research does not work.
    Hence, it is also called as „Motivation
    Quantitative Research: This research is
    mainly concerned with the measurement of
    phenomenon in terms of quantity. Many a
    times a debate is conducted between
    qualitative and quantitative terms. An
    example for the quantitative research is
    carrying out senses for collecting
    population, social, economic statistics of a
    particular area. They are subjected to
    statistical analysis. It relays mainly on
    primary data like survey method and
    questionnaire method. However, one can
    observe the inter-dependence between one
    Descriptive Research: As the name itself
    indicates, this research directly deals with
    description. It includes different data
    collection like survey method and factfinding techniques. The main character of
    Mimansha Patel Exploring Research Methodology: Review Article
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    Vol.6; Issue: 3; March 2019
    this research is that, the researcher does not
    have control over the variables. He should
    describe what has happened and what is
    happening. Most Ex post facto projects use
    descriptive research.
    Some other types of research: Apart from
    the above types of research, there are many
    other classifications like
    Longitudinal Research which is spread
    over for a long period of time. In this
    change takes place gradually.
    Historical Research which is concerned
    with the collecting of auto biographies,
    letters, documents, enquiries for knowing
    the past.
    Simulation Research deals with the
    creation of an artificial environment which
    is quite similar to real environment.
    Depending upon the need of the situation
    we can create and adjust to it. [6]
    Significance of Research
     It helps in framing of policies: Research
    helps in the framing of various
    government policies. Nearly all the
    government policies and budgets are
    planned and executed through research
    with the help of researcher. Annual
    budget, monthly budget, monetary and
    economic policies are all framed by the
    government. The government is assisted
    by various organizations for framing the
    policies through research.
     Basic aim is to gain knowledge: It leads
    to many ideas and changes old facts.
     It is used in business organization: Many
    business companies hire researcher to
    work on various things. It is used in
    studying the changes taking place in the
    market. It helps in capital budgeting, tax
    management and cost saving policies.
     It leads to discovery and innovation of
    unknown facts and unexplored theories.
    It leads to the growth of the society and
    its citizens. It gives chance to the
    researcher to go deep into the subject
    and to innovate it.
     It avoids superstitious beliefs, myths and
    prejudices: Many people are still not
    aware of the research activities and its
    importance. Many ancient beliefs and
    myths have been proven wrong with the
    help of research.
     It leads to development of social welfare
    and society.
     It is useful for PhD students to write
    their thesis.
    Thus, Research is a fountain of knowledge,
    which helps in solving all government
    policies, business problems, avoids
    superstitious beliefs and helps in the
    development and maturity of society and its
    citizens. [6]
    Research Process:
    1. Formulating the research problem:
    There are two types of research
    problems, viz., those which relate to
    states of nature and those which relate to
    relationships between variables. At the
    very outset the researcher must single
    out the problem he wants to study, i.e.,
    he must decide the general area of
    interest or aspect of a subject-matter that
    he would like to inquire into. Initially
    the problem may be stated in a broad
    general way and then the ambiguities, if
    any, relating to the problem be resolved.
    Then, the feasibility of a particular
    solution has to be considered before a
    working formulation of the problem can
    be set up. The formulation of a general
    topic into a specific research problem,
    thus, constitutes the first step in a

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    scientific enquiry. Essentially two steps
    are involved in formulating the research
    problem, viz., understanding the
    problem thoroughly, and rephrasing the
    same into meaningful terms from an
    analytical point of view.
    2. Extensive literature survey: Once the
    problem is formulated, a brief summary
    of it should be written down. It is
    compulsory for a research worker
    writing a thesis for a Ph.D. degree to
    write a synopsis of the topic and submit
    it to the necessary Committee or the
    Research Board for approval. At this
    juncture the researcher should undertake
    extensive literature survey connected
    Mimansha Patel Exploring Research Methodology: Review Article
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    Vol.6; Issue: 3; March 2019
    with the problem. For this purpose, the
    abstracting and indexing journals and
    published or unpublished bibliographies
    are the first place to go to. Academic
    journals, conference proceedings,
    government reports, books etc., must be
    tapped depending on the nature of the
    problem. In this process, it should be
    remembered that one source will lead to
    another. The earlier studies, if any,
    which are similar to the study in hand
    should be carefully studied. A good
    library will be a great help to the
    researcher at this stage. [5]
    3. Developing a working hypothesis: A
    research in any field of study do not give
    proper results unless and until we
    develop a working hypothesis. It is a
    tentative statement or assumption
    regarding the solution to the problem of
    study. It is an assumption which is used
    to draw the logical consequences. It is
    the key point of study and hence it
    should be limited and should contain
    much knowledge. It is helpful for
    researcher for predictions and also
    maintains complete focus on the study.
    It should be precise and clearly defined.
    It gives an idea of the type of data to be
    used and type of method or techniques
    for the study. In some research activities
    like exploratory or formulative,
    hypothesis is not used for testing. [6]
    4. Preparing the research design: The
    research problem having been
    formulated in clear cut terms, the
    researcher will be required to prepare a
    research design, i.e., he will have to
    state the conceptual structure within
    which research would be conducted. The
    preparation of such a design facilitates
    research to be as efficient as possible
    yielding maximal information. In other
    words, the function of research design is
    to provide for the collection of relevant
    evidence with minimal expenditure of
    effort, time and money. But how all
    these can be achieved depends mainly
    on the research purpose. Research
    purposes may be grouped into four
    categories, viz., (i) Exploration, (ii)
    Description, (iii) Diagnosis, and (iv)
    Experimentation. A flexible research
    design which provides opportunity for
    considering many different aspects of a
    problem is considered appropriate if the
    purpose of the research study is that of
    exploration. But when the purpose
    happens to be an accurate description of
    a situation or of an association between
    variables, the suitable design will be one
    that minimises bias and maximises the
    reliability of the data collected and
    analysed. There are several research
    designs, such as, experimental and nonexperimental hypothesis testing.
    Experimental designs can be either
    informal designs (such as before-andafter without control, after-only with
    control, before-and-after with control) or
    formal designs (such as completely
    randomized design, randomized block
    design, Latin square design, simple and
    complex factorial designs), out of which
    the researcher must select one for his
    own project. The preparation of the
    research design, appropriate for a
    particular research problem, involves
    usually the consideration of the
    following: (i) the means of obtaining the
    information; (ii) the availability and
    skills of the researcher and his staff (if
    any); (iii) explanation of the way in
    which selected means of obtaining
    information will be organised and the
    reasoning leading to the selection; (iv)
    the time available for research; and (v)
    the cost factor relating to research, i.e.,
    the finance available for the purpose. [5]
    5. Determining sample design: The
    researcher must decide the way of
    selecting a sample or what is popularly
    known as the sample design. In other
    words, a sample design is a definite plan
    determined before any data are actually
    collected for obtaining a sample from a
    given population. A brief mention of the
    important sample designs is as follows:
     Deliberate sampling
     Simple random sampling
    Mimansha Patel Exploring Research Methodology: Review Article
    International Journal of Research & Review ( 52
    Vol.6; Issue: 3; March 2019
     Systematic sampling
     Stratified sampling
     Quota sampling
     Cluster sampling and area sampling
     Multi-stage sampling
     Sequential sampling [5]
    6. Collecting the data: The method of
    gathering or collecting the data is
    planned in data collection design. There
    are many types for collecting the data.
    The two types of collecting data are
    Primary data and Secondary data.
    Some of the important methods for
    collecting the Primary data are as follows:
    Questionnaire: The method of collecting
    data in vast geographical areas is done
    through Questionnaire method. Hence
    questionnaires are mailed to the research
    areas and they are distributed among the
    respondents. It is a time saving and
    economical method but the main drawback
    is that the answers given by the respondents
    are not accurate.
    Interview: The investigators prepare a set of
    questions and ask them in a serial vise to the
    respondents. There are different types of
    interview like personal, group, mock and
    telephone interview. It is fast procedure. We
    can get extra information which is related to
    the topic. But it is costly. Some respondents
    may try to hide some answers. It saves
    much time of the investigator.
    Observation: This is also one type of
    collecting data primarily. In this researcher
    observes the day to day process of the
    society or a single person. Sometimes
    researcher has to involve in the process. It
    discovers the human behavior of the
    respondent. No doubt this method is cost
    effective but the data collected is also
    limited. It can‟t predict the happenings of
    the future.
    Secondary data can be collected through
    books, published articles, internet and
    syndicate services. Syndicate services are
    companies which collect and sell data to
    various people who are in need. It is suitable
    for researcher who wants to survey on large
    population. The disadvantage of this method
    is that the researcher will not enjoy extra
    information and it is very costly.
    7. Though the data can be collected in a
    short span of time but the accuracy
    cannot be stated. [6]
    Execution of the project: After preparing a
    good design for the process of research, the
    researcher should move on to the next step
    of execution. From this stage the researcher
    starts executing the research design.
    Training should be given to the surveyors
    and a working manual should be given to
    them. The collection of data should be
    carefully handled. [6]
    8. Analysis of data: Soon after the
    collection of data, the researcher turns to
    the process of analyzing the collected
    data. The raw data will be tuned. There
    are many things used for analysis like
    coding, tabulation, editing and statistical
    analysis. Data will be collected in the
    form of questionnaires or schedules.
    Hence the data collected in short forms
    will be elaborated through coding.
    Editing can be done at the time of
    collecting or collecting the data.
    Through editing the researcher removes
    all the mistakes in the project. It will be
    polished. Through tabulation the
    researchers do the work of preparing the
    9. Hypothesis-testing: After analysing the
    data as stated above, the researcher is in
    a position to test the hypotheses, if any,
    he had formulated earlier. Do the facts
    support the hypotheses or they happen to
    be contrary? This is the usual question
    which should be answered while testing
    hypotheses. Various tests, such as Chi
    square test, t-test, F-test, have been
    developed by statisticians for the
    purpose. The hypotheses may be tested
    through the use of one or more of such
    tests, depending upon the nature and
    object of research inquiry. Hypothesistesting will result in either accepting the
    hypothesis or in rejecting it. If the
    researcher had no hypotheses to start
    with, generalisations established on the
    basis of data may be stated as

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