NR 439 Data Collection and Measurement DQ
NR 439 Data Collection and Measurement DQ
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Access the following information. You may read the PDF online or download it.
American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. ANA. http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/workforce/Fast-Facts-2014-Nursing-Workforce.pdf (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
- Review these facts, and describe what the results say about this sample of the nursing workforce.
- What do you believe was the intent of the researcher who designed the survey?
- The next process for our study is to collect data. The research design will indicate the best data to be collected. The tools that we use to collect data need to be reliable and valid. Define these terms with respect to research, and explain why they are important.
- Consider data collection and measurement methods for your nursing clinical issue. Explain how you would collect data and what measurement methods you would use.
Data Collection Definition
Data collection is defined as the procedure of collecting, measuring and analyzing accurate insights for research using standard validated techniques. A researcher can evaluate their hypothesis on the basis of collected data. In most cases, data collection is the primary and most important step for research, irrespective of the field of research. The approach of data collection is different for different fields of study, depending on the required information.
The most critical objective of data collection is ensuring that information-rich and reliable data is collected for statistical analysis so that data-driven decisions can be made for research.
Data Collection Methods: Phone vs. Online vs. In-Person Interviews
Essentially there are four choices for data collection – in-person interviews, mail, phone and online. There are pros and cons to each of these modes.
Pros: In-depth and a high degree of confidence on the data
Cons: Time consuming, expensive and can be dismissed as anecdotal
Pros: Can reach anyone and everyone – no barrier
Cons: Expensive, data collection errors, lag time
Pros: High degree of confidence in the data collected, reach almost anyone
Cons: Expensive, cannot self-administer, need to hire an agency
Pros: Cheap, can self-administer, very low probability of data errors
Cons: Not all your customers might have an email address/be on the internet, customers may be wary of divulging information online.
In-person interviews always are better, but the big drawback is the trap you might fall into if you don’t do them regularly. It is expensive to regularly conduct interviews and not conducting enough interviews might give you false positives. Validating your research is almost as important as designing and conducting it. We’ve seen many instances where after the research is conducted – if the results do not match up with the “gut-feel” of upper management, it has been dismissed off as anecdotal and a “one-time” phenomenon. To avoid such traps, we strongly recommend that data-collection be done on an “ongoing and regular” basis. This will help you in comparing and analyzing the change in perceptions according to marketing done for your products/services. The other issue here is sample size. To be confident with your research you have to interview enough people to weed out the fringe elements.
A couple of years ago there was quite a lot of discussion about online surveys and their statistical validity. The fact that not every customer had internet connectivity was one of the main concerns. Although some of the discussions are still valid, the reach of the internet as a means of communication has become vital in the majority of customer interactions. According to the US Census Bureau, the number of households with computers has doubled between 1997 and 2001.
Learn more: Quantitative Market Research
In 2001 nearly 50% of the households had a computer. Nearly 55% of all households with an income of more than 35,000 have internet access, and this jumps to 70% for households with an annual income of 50,000. This data is from the US Census Bureau for 2001.
There are primarily three modes of data collection that can be employed to gather feedback – Mail, Phone, and Online. The method actually used for data-collection is really a cost-benefit analysis. There is no slam-dunk solution but you can use the table below to understand the risks and advantages associated with each of the mediums:
Survey Medium Cost per Response Data Quality/Integrity Reach (ALL US Households) Paper $20 – $30 Medium 100% Phone $20 – $35 High 95% Online / Email $1 – $5 Medium 50-70%
Keep in mind, the reach here is defined as “All U.S. Households.” In most cases, you need to take a look at how many of your customers are online and make a determination. If all your customers have email addresses, you have a 100% reach of your customers.
Another important thing to keep in mind is the ever-increasing dominance of cellular phones over landline phones. United States FCC rules prevent automated dialing and calling cellular phone numbers and there is a noticeable trend towards people having cellular phones as the only voice communication device. This introduces the inability to reach cellular phone customers who are dropping home phone lines in favor of going entirely wireless. Even if automated dialing is not used, another FCC rule prohibits from phoning anyone who would have to pay for the call.
Learn more: Qualitative Market Research
Surveys, where the data is collected via different modes (online, paper, phone etc.), is also another way of going. It is fairly straightforward and easy to have an online survey and have data-entry operators to enter in data (from the phone as well as paper surveys) into the system. The same system can also be used to collect data directly from the respondents.
Learn more: Survey Research
Data Collection Example
Data collection is an important aspect of research. Let’s consider an example of a mobile manufacturer, company X, which is launching a new product variant. To conduct research about features, price range, target market, competitor analysis etc. data has to be collected from appropriate sources. The marketing team can conduct various data collection activities such as online surveys or focus groups.
The survey should have all the right questions about features and pricing such as “What are the top 3 features expected from an upcoming product?” or “How much are your likely to spend on this product?” or “Which competitors provide similar products?” etc.
For conducting a focus group, the marketing team should decide the participants as well as the mediator. The topic of discussion and objective behind conducting a focus group should be made clear beforehand so that a conclusive discussion can be conducted.
Data collection methods are chosen depending on the available resources. For example, conducting questionnaires and surveys would require the least resources while focus groups require moderately high resources.