How to Perform Rectal Examination

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How to Perform Rectal Examination

How to Perform Rectal Examination

NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT: How to Perform Rectal Examination

Question : Important techniques in performing the rectal examination include which of the following?

Lubrication

Waiting for the sphincter to relax

Explaining what the patient should expect with each step before it occurs

All of the above

Question 10. Question : Jim is a 47-year-old man who is having difficulties with sexual function. He is recently separated from his wife of 20 years. He notes that he has early morning erections but otherwise cannot function. Which of the following is a likely cause for his problem?

Decreased testosterone levels

Psychological issues

Abnormal hypogastric arterial circulation

Impaired neural innervation

Question 1. Which of the following is true of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection?

Pap smear is a relatively ineffective screening method.

It commonly resolves spontaneously in one to two years.

It is the second most common STI in the United States.

HPV infections cause a small but important number of cervical cancers.

Question 2. Question : Which of the following is the most effective pattern of palpation for breast cancer?

Beginning at the nipple, make an ever-enlarging spiral.

Divide the breast into quadrants and inspect each systematically.

Examine in lines resembling the back and forth pattern of mowing a lawn.

Beginning at the nipple, palpate vertically in a stripe pattern.

Question 3. Question : A 14-year-old junior high school student is brought in by his mother and father because he seems to be developing breasts. The mother is upset because she read on the Internet that smoking marijuana leads to breast enlargement in males. The young man adamantly denies using any tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. He has recently noticed changes in his penis, testicles, and pubic hair pattern. Otherwise, his past medical history is unremarkable. His parents are both in good health. He has two older brothers who never had this problem. On examination, you see a mildly overweight teenager with enlarged breast tissue that is slightly tender on both sides. Otherwise, his examination is normal. He is agreeable to taking a drug test. What is the most likely cause of his gynecomastia?

Breast cancer

Imbalance of hormones of puberty

Drug use

Question 4. Question : Which of the following represents metrorrhagia?

Fewer than 21 days between menses

Excessive flow

Infrequent bleeding

Bleeding between periods

Question 5. Question : What does a KOH (potassium hydroxide) prep help the nurse practitioner diagnose?

Herpes zoster infections

Yeast infections

Herpes simplex infections

Viral infections

Question 6. Question : Abby is a newly married woman who is unable to have intercourse because of vaginismus. Which of the following is true?

This is most likely due to lack of lubrication.

This is most likely due to atrophic vaginitis.

This is most likely due to pressure on an ovary.

Psychosocial reasons may cause this condition.

Question 7. Question : A 30-year-old man notices a firm, 2-cm mass under his areola. He has no other symptoms and no diagnosis of breast cancer in his first-degree relatives. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Breast tissue

Fibrocystic disease

Breast cancer

Lymph node

Question 8. Question : Which of the following is true regarding breast self-examination?

It has been shown to reduce mortality from breast cancer.

It is recommended unanimously by organizations making screening recommendations.

A high proportion of breast masses are detected by breast self-examination.

The undue fear caused by finding a mass justifies omitting instruction in breast self-examination.

Question 9. Question : A 23-year-old computer programmer comes to your office for an annual examination. She has recently become sexually active and wants to be placed on birth control. Her only complaint is that the skin in her armpits has become darker. She states it looks like dirt, and she scrubs her skin nightly with soap and water but the color stays. Her past medical symptoms consist of acne and mild obesity. Her periods have been irregular for 3 years. Her mother has type 2 diabetes, and her father has high blood pressure. The patient denies using tobacco but has four to five drinks on Friday and Saturday nights. She denies any illegal drug use. On examination, you see a mildly obese female who is breathing comfortably. Her vital signs are unremarkable. Looking under her axilla, you see dark, velvet-like skin. Her annual examination is otherwise unremarkable. What disorder of the breast or axilla is she most likely to have?

Peau d’orange

Acanthosis nigricans

Hidradenitis suppurativa

Question 10. Question : Which of the following is true of women who have had a unilateral mastectomy?

They no longer require breast examination.

They should be examined carefully along the surgical scar for masses.

Lymphedema of the ipsilateral arm usually suggests recurrence of breast cancer.

Women with breast reconstruction over their mastectomy site no longer require examination.

Question 1. A 76-year-old retired farmer comes to your office complaining of abdominal pain, constipation, and a low-grade fever for about three days. He denies any nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. The only unusual thing he remembers eating is two bags of popcorn at the movies with his grandson, three days before his symptoms began. He denies any other recent illnesses. His past medical history is significant for coronary artery disease and high blood pressure. He has been married for over fifty years. He denies any tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. His mother died of colon cancer and his father had a stroke. On examination, he appears his stated age and is in no acute distress. His temperature is 100.9 degrees and his other vital signs are unremarkable. His head, cardiac, and pulmonary examinations are normal. He has normal bowel sounds and is tender over the left lower quadrant. He has no rebound or guarding. His rectal examination is unremarkable and his fecal occult blood test is negative.His prostate is slightly enlarged but his testicular, penile, and inguinal  examinations are all normal. Blood work is pending.

What diagnosis for abdominal pain best describes his symptoms and signs?

Acute diverticulitis

Acute cholecystitis

Acute appendicitis

Mesenteric ischemia

Question 2. Question : Jim is a 60-year-old man who presents with vomiting. He denies seeing any blood with emesis, which has been occurring for two days. He does note a dark, granular substance resembling the coffee left in the filter after brewing. What do you suspect?

Bleeding from a diverticulum

Bleeding from a peptic ulcer

Bleeding from a colon cancer

Bleeding from cholecystitis

Question 3. Question : A 26-year-old sports store manager comes to your clinic, complaining of severe right-sided abdominal pain for twelve hours. He began having a stomachache yesterday, with a decreased appetite, but today the pain seems to be just on the lower right side. He has had some nausea and vomiting but no constipation or diarrhea. His last bowel movement was the night before and was normal. He has had no fever or chills. He denies any recent illnesses or injuries. His past medical history is unremarkable. He is engaged. He denies any tobacco or drug use and drinks four to six beers per week. His mother has breast cancer and his father has coronary artery disease. On examination, he appears ill and is lying on his right side. His temperature is 100.4 degrees and his heart rate is 110. His bowel sounds are decreased and he has rebound and involuntary guarding, one-third of the way between the anterior superior iliac spine and the umbilicus in the right lower quadrant (RLQ). His rectal, inguinal, prostate, penile, and testicular examinations are normal.

What is the most likely cause of his pain?

Acute appendicitis

Acute mechanical intestinal obstruction

Acute cholecystitis

Mesenteric ischemia

How to Perform Rectal Examination

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