DNP 825 Assignment Health Care System Components

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DNP 825 Assignment Health Care System Components

DNP 825 Assignment Health Care System Components


Determine a work area in your organization that you would
like to use for assignments in this course.
Focusing on one area will help you organize your work for any future

Construct a presentation using PowerPoints® and create a
twelve step project charter for your workflow redesign. This should be about a health care system
component (Example of a system component could be the admission process into an
emergency room) and frame the project in a quality-improvement modality by
establishing a plan for improvement. In your text book page 228-229 list the
twelve questions that must be answered for this assignment.

Construct a PowerPoint® presentation of a workflow design
for the same health care system component using appropriate Yourdon symbols and

Include these steps to create your workflow redesign.

identify process to be mapped;

identify and involve individuals who perform the tasks;

map the current state; assess current state workflow;

identify opportunities for improvement;

identify data to measure redesign outcomes;

map future “to be” process; test new workflows and

train on new workflows and processes;

go live with the new workflows and processes;

and analyze data and refine workflows and processes

The PowerPoints® should include a title page, the twelve
step project charter and then your workflow redesign for the same health care
component, then a reference page.Key components of a well functioning health system
A well functioning health system responds in a balanced way to a population’s needs and expectations by:
ƒ improving the health status of individuals, families and communities
ƒ defending the population against what threatens its health
ƒ protecting people against the financial consequences of ill-health
ƒ providing equitable access to people-centred care
ƒ making it possible for people to participate in decisions affecting their health and health system.
Without strong policies and leadership, health systems do not spontaneously provide balanced responses
to these challenges, nor do they make the most efficient use of their resources. As most health leaders
know, health systems are subject to powerful forces and influences that often override rational policy
making. These forces include disproportionate focus on specialist curative care, fragmentation in a
multiplicity of competing programs, projects and institutions, and the pervasive commercialization of health
care delivery in poorly regulated systems. Keeping health systems on track requires a strong sense of
direction, and coherent investment in the various building blocks of the health system, so as to provide the
kind of services that produce results.
Leadership and governance
Each country’s specific context and history
shapes the way leadership and governance is
exercised, but common ingredients of good
practice in leadership and governance can be
identified. These include:
ƒ Ensuring that health authorities take
responsibility for steering the entire health
sector (not merely public sector service
delivery); and for dealing with future
challenges (including unanticipated events
or disasters) as well as with current
ƒ Defining, through transparent and inclusive
processes, national health policies, strategy
and plan that set a clear direction for the
health sector, with:
• A formulation of the country’s
commitment to high level policy goals
(health equity, people-centeredness,
sound public health polices, effective
and accountable governance)
• A strategy for translating these policy
goals into its implications for financing,
human resources, pharmaceuticals,
technology, infrastructure and service
delivery, with relevant guidelines, plans
and targets
• Mechanisms for accountability and
adaptation to evolving needs
ƒ Effective regulation through a combination of
guidelines, mandates, and incentives,
backed up by legal measures and
enforcement mechanisms;
ƒ Effective policy dialogue with other sectors.
ƒ Mechanisms and institutional arrangements
to channel donor funding and align it to
country priorities.

Health information systems
Good governance is only possible with good
information on health challenges, on the broader
environment in which the health system operates,
and on the performance of the health system.
This specifically includes timely intelligence on:
ƒ Progress in meeting health challenges and
social objectives (particularly equity),
including but not limited to household
surveys, civil registration systems and
epidemiological surveillance

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ƒ Health financing, including through national
health accounts and an analysis of financial
catastrophes and of financial and other
barriers to health services for the poor and
ƒ Trends and needs for HRH; on consumption
of and access to pharmaceuticals; on
appropriateness and cost of technology; on
distribution and adequacy of infrastructure
ƒ Access to care and on the quality of services
This, in turn, requires a variety of institutional
ƒ A national monitoring and evaluation plan
that specifies core indicators (with targets),
data collection and management, analyses
and communication and use
ƒ Arrangements to make information
accessible to all involved, including
communities, civil society, health
professionals and politicians
Health financing
Health financing can be a key policy instrument
to improve health and reduce health inequalities
if its primary objective is to facilitate universal
coverage by removing financial barriers to
access and preventing financial hardship and
catastrophic expenditure. The following can
facilitate these outcomes:
ƒ A system to raise sufficient funds for health
ƒ A system to pool financial resources across
population groups to share financial risks
ƒ A financing governance system supported
by relevant legislation, financial audit and
public expenditure reviews, and clear
operational rules to ensure efficient use of
Human resources for health
The health workforce is central to achieving
health. A well performing workforce is one that is
responsive to the needs and expectations of
people, is fair and efficient to achieve the best
outcomes possible given available resources
and circumstances. Countries are at different
stages of development of their health workforce
but common concerns include improving
recruitment, education, training and distribution;
enhancing productivity and performance; and
improving retention. This requires:
ƒ Arrangements for achieving sufficient
numbers of the right mix (numbers, diversity
and competencies)
ƒ Payment systems that produce the right kind
of incentives
ƒ Regulatory mechanisms to ensure system
wide deployment and distribution in
accordance with needs
ƒ Establishment of job related norms,
deployment of support systems and enabling
work environments
ƒ Mechanisms to ensure cooperation of all
stakeholders ( such as health worker
advisory groups, donor coordination groups,
private sector, professional associations,
communities, client/consumer groups).
Essential medical products and
Universal access to health care is heavily
dependent on access to affordable essential
medicines, vaccines, diagnostics and health
technologies of assured quality, which are used
in a scientifically sound and cost-effective way.
Economically, medical products are the second
largest component of most health budgets (after
salaries) and the largest component of private
health expenditure in low and middle income
countries. Key components of a functioning
system are:
ƒ A medical products regulatory system for
marketing authorization and safety
monitoring, supported by relevant legislation,
enforcement mechanisms, an inspectorate
and access to a medical products quality
control laboratory
ƒ National lists of essential medical products,
national diagnostic and treatment protocols,
and standardized equipment per levels of
care, to guide procurement, reimbursement
and training
ƒ A supply and distribution system to ensure
universal access to essential medical
products and health technologies through
public and private channels, with focus on
the poor and disadvantaged
ƒ A national medical products availability and
price monitoring system
ƒ A national programme to promote rational
Service delivery
Health systems are only as effective as the
services they provide. These critically depend on:
ƒ Networks of close-to-client primary care,
organized as health districts or local area
networks with the back-up of specialized and
hospital services, responsible for defined
ƒ Provision of a package of benefits with a
comprehensive and integrated range of
clinical and public health interventions, that
respond to the full range of health problems
of their populations, including those targeted
by the Millennium Development Goals
ƒ Standards, norms and guidance to ensure
access and essential dimensions of quality:
safety, effectiveness, integration, continuity,
and people -centeredness
ƒ Mechanisms to hold providers accountable
for access and quality and to ensure
consumer voice.

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