Adapted from Weber, Kelly & Sprengel, 2014: Lippincott, with permission.

Questions Findings

Current Status


1. Note any distinctive odors.

2. Inspect and palpate lips, buccal mucosa, gums, and tongue for color

10 variations (pallor, redness, white patches, bluish hue), moisture, tissue consistency, or lesions (induration, roughness, vesicles, crusts, plaques, nodules, ulcers, cracking, patches, bleeding, Koplik spots, cancer sores), Stensen and Wharton ducts.

3. Inspect gums for hyperplasia, blue-black line.

4. Inspect teeth for number and shape, color (white, brown, yellow, chalky white areas), occlusion.

5. Inspect and palpate tongue for color, texture, and consistency (black, hairy, white patches, smooth, reddish, shiny without papillae), moisture, and size (enlarged or very small).


1. Inspect the throat for color, consistency, torus palatinus, uvula (singular).

2. Inspect the tonsils for color and consistency; grading scale (1, 2, 3, or 4).


1. Inspect and palpate the external nose for color, shape, consistency, tenderness, and patency

of airflow.

2. Inspect the internal nose for color, swelling, exudate, bleeding, ulcers, perforated septum, or polyps.


1. Palpate the sinuses for tenderness.

2. Percuss and transilluminate (if possible) the sinuses for air versus fluid or pus.