Discussion: Risk Factors and Treatment of Anemia
Discussion: Risk Factors and Treatment of Anemia Contains
Intrinsic Factor is the protein that transports vitamin B12 across the intestinal mucosa. B12 is a vitamin essential in the process of DNA and RNA synthesis. When there is a deficiency in B12, the body cannot produce healthy erythrocytes to bring oxygen to the sites in the body of DNA and RNA formation. As a result, many body processes are affected and some of the symptoms include lethargy, weakness, paresthesia, depression, visual disturbances and “brain fog” (Gilbert, 2017).
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This deficiency of B12 can be simply from a lack of vitamin rich foods, or it can be from the defect of the parietal cells in the stomach that secrete Intrinsic Factor. When the source of the b12 deficiency is linked to the lack of Intrinsic factor, it is called Pernicious Anemia. At one time, there was no known treatment and this condition was fatal, hence the name Pernicious Anemia. Now, there are supplements and intramuscular injections available to counteract the condition (Burkhart, 2014). If a person is very ill
from the anemia, there may be support for a blood transfusion if deemed beneficial. Its important to investigate the cause of the b12 deficiency. If the cause is lack of intrinsic factor, you may need to supplement not only b12, but folate and/or potassium as well. Regular blood work is imperative (Brown, 2013).
Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune condition. Since autoimmune conditions have a genetic link, this condition appears to have genetic risk factors, as well. Other risk factors include poor dietary intake (i.e. vegetarian and vegan lifestyles), alcoholism, pancreatic disorders, bariatric surgery, Celiac disease and Crohn’s disease (Brown, 2013). Most commonly, this disease affects women over the age of thirty of Northern European descent but have also been reported in blacks and Hispanics as well (McCance & Huether, 2014, pg. 987-988).
References: Discussion: Risk Factors and Treatment of Anemia Contains
Brown. (2013). Managing pernicious anaemia. Independent Nurse, 22–24. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=107986234&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Burkhart. (2014). Pernicious Anemia. RDH, 34(2), 71–91. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=104025220&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Gilbert. (2017). Diagnosis and treatment of pernicious anaemia. Practice Nurse, 47(4), 20–23. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=122680895&site=ehost-live&scope=site
McCance & Huether. (2014). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th Ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier
Discuss the defect of gastric secretion of intrinsic factor (IF) that leads to anemia. Identify the type of anemia this defect can cause and the risk factors that can lead to this anemia to develop. Briefly discuss the treatment options for this type of anemia.
In responding to two of your peers, discuss other potential therapies available for this individual. Explain the pathophysiology behind the development of this type of anemia.
To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.
Undergraduate Discussion Rubric
Your active participation in the discussions is essential to your overall success this term. Discussion questions will help you make meaningful connections
between the course content and the larger concepts of the course. These discussions give you a chance to express your own thoughts, ask questions, and gain insight from your peers and instructor.
For each discussion, you must create one initial post and follow up with at least two response posts.
For your initial post, do the following:
• Write a post of 1 to 2 paragraphs.
• In Module One, complete your initial post by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. Eastern.
• In Modules Two through Eight, complete your initial post by Thursday at 11:59 p.m. of your local time zone.
• Consider content from other parts of the course where appropriate. Use proper citation methods for your discipline when referencing scholarly or popular sources.
For your response posts, do the following:
• Reply to at least two classmates outside of your own initial post thread.
• In Module One, complete your two response posts by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. Eastern.
• In Modules Two through Eight, complete your two response posts by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. of your local time zone.
• Demonstrate more depth and thought than saying things like “I agree” or “You are wrong.” Guidance is provided for you in the discussion prompt.
Critical Elements Exemplary Proficient Needs Improvement Not Evident Value
Comprehension Develops an initial post with an organized, clear point of view or
idea using rich and significant detail
(100%) Develops an initial post with a point of view or idea using adequate organization and
detail (85%) Develops an initial post with a point of view or idea but with some gaps in organization and
detail (55%) Does not develop an initial post with an organized point of view or idea (0%) 40
Timeliness N/A Submits initial post on time (100%) Submits initial post one day late (55%) Submits initial post two or more days late (0%) 10
Engagement Provides relevant and meaningful response posts with clarifying
explanation and detail (100%) Provides relevant response posts with some explanation
and detail (85%) Provides somewhat relevant response posts with some
explanation and detail (55%) Provides response posts that are generic with little
explanation or detail (0%) 30
Critical Elements Exemplary Proficient Needs Improvement Not Evident Value
(Mechanics) Writes posts that are easily understood, clear, and concise using proper citation methods
where applicable with no errors in
citations (100%) Writes posts that are easily understood using proper
citation methods where applicable with few errors in
citations (85%) Writes posts that are understandable using proper citation methods where
applicable with a number of
errors in citations (55%) Writes posts that others are not able to understand and does not use proper citation
methods where applicable (0%) 20
Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Iron Deficiency Anemia
Iron deficiency anemia is a common nutritional disorder that occurs when your body is low in iron. A decrease in iron levels causes a shortage of red blood cells, affecting the flow of oxygen to your tissues and organs.
Although iron deficiency anemia is generally easy to manage, it can lead to serious health problems when left untreated.
If you think you may have iron deficiency anemia, talk to your doctor about it immediately. Use this discussion guide to help get the conversation going.
What are the risk factors?
Although anyone can develop iron deficiency anemia, some people have a higher risk. Your doctor can tell you whether you have risk factors that increase your chances of being anemic. A few things that increase your risk of developing iron deficiency anemia include:
being a vegetarian
donating blood frequently
being 65 or older
What symptoms should I look out for?
The severity and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia vary from person to person. Your condition may be so mild its symptoms aren’t noticeable. On the other hand, you may experience a significant effect on your daily life.
Some symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include:
cold hands and feet
sore or swollen tongue
If you’ve recently experienced any of these symptoms, try to give your doctor a rough timeline of when they began, how long they lasted, and whether you’re still experiencing them.