Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes NURS 6501

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Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes NURS 6501

Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes NURS 6501

Week 1: Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment

One of the more common biology analogies refers to cells as the “building blocks” of life. This rightfully places an emphasis on understanding cells, cellular behavior, and the impact of the environment in which they function.

Such an understanding helps explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health. Just as importantly, it helps explain how breakdowns in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issues.

Click here to ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT:    Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes NURS 6501 

This week, you examine cellular processes that are subject to alterations that can lead to disease. You evaluate the genetic environments within which these processes exist as well as the impact these environments have on disease.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
  • Evaluate the impact of the genetic environment on disease

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
  • Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents (pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
  • Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases
  • Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
  • Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
  • Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing
  • Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 10: Infection (pp. 289–303; stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
  • Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping)Summary Review
  • Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction); Summary Review
  • Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Module 1 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 1 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Discussion and Assignment. (4m)

 

Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology – Week 1 (14m)

 
Immunity and Inflammation

Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Soo, P. (2018, July 28). Pathophysiology Ch 10 alterations in immune function [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz0wx1-jTds

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 37 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #1

MedCram. (2012, April 28). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wMEMhvrQxE

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #2

MedCram. (2012, April 29). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly | 2 of 8 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmEeKVTpOKI

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Hyponatremia

MedCram. (2017, December 23). Hyponatremia explained clearly (remastered) – Electrolyte imbalances [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLajK5Vy55M

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student
  2. Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, or ISBN 9780323654395 (name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
  3. Complete the registration process.

To View the Content for This Text

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/
  2. Click on Student Site.
  3. Type in your username and password.
  4. Click on the Login button.
  5. Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
  6. Click on the name of the textbook for this course.
  7. Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
  8. Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).

Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

Week 1 Discussion/Case study

Week 1 Case Study-Malabsorption Syndrome

An 83-year-old resident of a skilled nursing facility presents to the emergency department with generalized edema of extremities and abdomen. History obtained from staff reveals the patient has history of malabsorption syndrome and difficulty eating due to lack of dentures. The patient has been diagnosed with protein malnutrition.

The process of digestion can be complex. The body requires adequate amounts of nutrients from all food groups to function effectively and maintain optimal health. The patient’s condition was exacerbated in this case due to the existing diagnosis of malabsorption syndrome. There is inadequate absorption of one or more nutrients into the bloodstream via the small intestines in malabsorption syndrome. According to Visser et al. (2017), several factors/diseases could lead to malabsorption syndrome, including genetically inherited diseases. Some of these diseases include lactose intolerance, hereditary folate malabsorption disorder, and cystic fibrosis (Visser et al., 2017). These diseases are inherited conditions that can result in malabsorption disorders by causing damage and alterations in the intestinal lining, affecting the body’s ability to absorb nutrients (McCance & Huether, 2019). Hereditary Folate Malabsorption disorder is classified within the malabsorption syndrome conditions that disrupt the folate transport characterized by systemic and central nervous system folate deficiency (McCance & Huether, 2019).

In the case study, the patient presented with edema of the extremities and abdomen due to a lack of the body’s ability to adequately absorb nutrients leading to protein malnutrition. When there is an alteration in the digestive process, food intake, or the body’s ability to absorb, this can lead to several deficiencies resulting in numerous health-related complications (McCance & Huether, 2019). The patient presented to the emergency department with generalized edema of extremities and abdomen and displayed some classic malabsorption syndrome signs. In this case, the edema is related to protein/folate deficiency, which causes fluid to shift from cells (intracellular) to the interstitial space (extracellular). According to McCance & Huether (2019), because protein (albumin) helps to retain sodium and fluid inside the cells, decreased serum albumin will cause fluid to shift from cells to interstitial space, causing fluid retention in the abdomen and extremities, leading to edema. Furthermore, the patient has a history report from the nursing home, stating the absence of dentures. This means that the consumption of not even an equivalent to a full meal wasn’t occurring. Even if other methods were used for feedings, such as feeding with semi-solids or liquified foods, the absorption of essential nutrients would still be inadequate, along with the fact that the patient’s absorption mechanism is already compromised. In this case, the patient would be at increased risk for further nutrient deficiency (particularly folate deficiency). Similar to iron, our bodies require adequate amounts of folate through supplements and ingestion of foods. Iron can be stored in the body via iron stores. However, folate, on the other hand, is one of the nutrients that the body cannot store in fat cells; thus ingestion and absorption of folate are needed daily (McCance & Huether, 2019).

Protein malnutrition is the imbalance of the patient’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. There are four main proteins within the body, albumin being the most abundant. The patient has a history of what appears to be a long-term/chronic malabsorption syndrome secondary to protein malnutrition (Visser et al., 2017). This means that after much hard work, the body’s natural ability to maintain equilibrium in a crisis (maintenance of system functions) with lack of nutrients is subdued because of prolonged protein deficiency. Ultimately, there will be damage to the digestive tract’s mucosal membrane and cells, thus damaging the villus of the small intestine. This disruption will cause a decrease in the absorption mechanism, resulting in overall cell and system malfunctions due to a lack of essential nutrients needed for adequate function (McCance & Huether, 2019).

Absorption primarily occurs in the small intestines, within the jejunum and the

ileum, which consists of many villus/epithelial cells that line the mucosa. These cells are

responsible for absorbing nutrients from the intestinal lumen and transporting them to connective

tissues from which nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream (McCance & Huether, 2019).

In malabsorption, there is a disruption in these cells’ function as a result of various conditions.

Damage to the small intestine results in the loss or drastic decrease of the body’s ability to perform

mass absorption of nutrients needed for the overall functioning of cells, tissues, organs, and

systems. These cells are sometimes damaged from various diseases, and as a result, essential

nutrients are not adequately absorbed, leading to several deficiencies and complications (McCance

& Huether, 2019).

Given the limitations in the case study related to the patient’s medical and family history, several factors may have changed my response to the scenario. For example, if the patient were female, several factors such as menstruation, childbirth, breastfeeding, and menopause may alter absorption. If adequate amounts of those necessary nutrients are not supplied and stored within the body, secondary issues can arise, such as multiple bone fractures (Santarpia et al., 2019). Additionally, females of childbearing age need adequate folate to ensure proper growth development of unborn children to reduce the risk of congenital disabilities. Malabsorption syndrome can also affect children in that malnutrition can stunt normal growth and development (Rusu et al., 2016).

References

Harding, K. M., Dyo, M., Goebel, J. R., Gorman, N., & Levine, J. (2016). Early malnutrition

screening and low cost protein supplementation in elderly patients admitted to a skilled

nursing facility. Applied Nursing Research31, 29–33. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2015.12.001

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in

            Adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby/Elsevier.

Rusu, T. E., Moraru, E., Bozomitu, L., Paduraru, D. T. A., Anghel, L., & Rugina, A. (2016).

Osteopenia in Children with Malabsorption Syndrom. Romanian Journal of Pediatrics65(4), 387–391.

Santarpia, L., Alfonsi, L., Castiglione, F., Pagano, M. C., Cioffi, I., Rispo, A., Sodo, M.,

Contaldo, F., & Pasanisi, F. (2019). Nutritional Rehabilitation in Patients with

Malnutrition Due to Crohn’s Disease. Nutrients11(12), 2947. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3390/nu11122947

Visser, M., Volkert, D., Corish, C., Geisler, C., Groot, L. C., Cruz, J. A. J., Lohrmann, C.,

O’Connor, E. M., Schindler, K., & Schueren, M. A. (2017). Tackling the increasing

problem of malnutrition in older persons: The Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNu EL)

Knowledge Hub. Nutrition Bulletin42(2), 178–186. https://doi-org.ezp. waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/nbu.12268


Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Photo Credit: Getty Images

At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

To prepare:

  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
By Day 3 of Week 1

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion


Assignment

Practicum Manual Acknowledgment

The Practicum Manual describes the structure and timing of the classroom-based and practicum experiences and the policies students must follow to be successful in the nurse practitioner (NP) specialties.

Click here and follow the instructions to confirm you have downloaded and read the entire MSN Nurse Practitioner Practicum Manual and will abide by the requirements described in order to successfully complete this program.


What’s Coming Up in Week 2?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, that may impact altered physiology.

Practicum – Upcoming Deadline

In the Nurse Practitioner programs of study (FNP, AGACNP, AGPCNP, and PMHNP) you are required to take several practicum courses. If you plan on taking a practicum course within the next two terms, you will need to submit your application via Meditrek .

For information on the practicum application process and deadlines, please visit the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Application Process – Graduate web page.

Please take the time to review the Appropriate Preceptors and Field Sites for your courses.

Please take the time to review the practicum manuals, FAQs, Webinars and any required forms on the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Student Resources and Manuals web page.

Next Week

Week 2

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Name: NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric
Grid View
List View
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting
45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
Answers all parts of the Discussion question(s) with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
40 (40%) – 44 (44%)
Responds to the Discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
35 (35%) – 39 (39%)
Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with two credible sources.

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.
0 (0%) – 34 (34%)
Does not respond to the Discussion question(s) adequately.

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible sources.

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.
Main Post: Timeliness
10 (10%) – 10 (10%)
Posts main post by Day 3.
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not post main post by Day 3.
First Response
17 (17%) – 18 (18%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
15 (15%) – 16 (16%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
13 (13%) – 14 (14%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.
0 (0%) – 12 (12%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Second Response
16 (16%) – 17 (17%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
14 (14%) – 15 (15%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
12 (12%) – 13 (13%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.
0 (0%) – 11 (11%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Participation
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
Total Points: 100
Name: NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric

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