Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes NURS 6501

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Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes NURS 6501

Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes NURS 6501

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At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
By Day 3 of Week 1

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Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

The role genetics plays in the disease.
Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
The cells that are involved in this process.
How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

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To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion

What’s Coming Up in Week 2?

 

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, that may impact altered physiology.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Week 2

Week 1: Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment

One of the more common biology analogies refers to cells as the “building blocks” of life. This rightfully places an emphasis on understanding cells, cellular behavior, and the impact of the environment in which they function.

Such an understanding helps explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health. Just as importantly, it helps explain how breakdowns in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issues.

This week, you examine cellular processes that are subject to alterations that can lead to disease. You evaluate the genetic environments within which these processes exist as well as the impact these environments have on disease.

RE: Discussion – Week 1

Case study

The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the motility, secretion, regulation,

and digestion of nutrients consumed in the diet. The fact that this patient already diagnosed with malabsorption syndrome which refers to decreased intestinal absorption of carbohydrate, protein, fat, minerals, or vitamins. And the fact that this patient is also having difficulty eating due to lack of dentures predisposed her to malnutrition symptoms. And the combination of these 2 facts is very detrimental to the proper absorption of nutrients. And at the end, the patient developed protein malnutrition, thus the manifestation of generalized edema of extremities and abdomen.

DNA provide a code for all the body’s proteins

  • Protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm
  • Protein perform many important functions in the body such as fluid balance, regulation (enzyme control chemical reactions; hormones regulate many physiologic processes) structure, transport (in cell membranes control movement o material into and out of cells), and energy.
  • Low protein levels in the blood caused by malnutrition, kidney, and liver disease can cause edema. The proteins help to hold salt and water inside the blood vessels, so fluid does not leak out into the tissues. In this case, the intestinal and hepatic cells and blood vessels are involved.
  • Low protein level causes the reduction of albumin which causes the fluid to leak out of the blood in a process called edema. And the classic location for the edema is in the abdomen.

References

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

Wykes, L. J., Fiorotto, M., Burrin, D. G., Del Rosario, M., Frazer, M. E., Pond, W. G., & Jahoor, F. (1996). Chronic low protein intake reduces tissue protein synthesis in a pig model of protein malnutrition. The Journal of Nutrition, 5, 1481. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1093/jn/126.5.1481

RE: Discussion – Week 1

Love,

Your explanation regarding the pathophysiology of protein malnutrition was very concise and clear. I think it is important to explore how malnutrition has affected globally as a result of COVID-19. I found an interesting article addressing the prevalence of malnutrition in Wuhan, China, in patients who contracted the virus. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) a tool to determine the impact of COVID-19 on participants.  Based on the tool results, the subjects were divided into three groups: non-malnutrition group, at risk for malnutrition group, and currently experiencing malnutrition. “There were statistical differences in the incidence of comorbid diabetes mellitus, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference, albumin, hemoglobin, and lymphocyte counts among the three groups” (Li et al., 2020). The study concluded that elderly patients that contracted COVID-19 had a high incidence of malnutrition and need special attention to their dietary needs during treatment.  The study also found that patients who had predisposing conditions such as diabetes mellitus, low calf circumference, or low albumin were at an even higher risk of developing nutritional problems (Li et al., 2020).

I mentioned in my initial post that Ashkenazi Jews and children are at increased risk of developing malnutrition. I later learned from Amy’s post that pregnant women are another at-risk population for developing protein complications. You mentioned albumin as a critical component of the patient’s symptoms, and I wanted to further explore other populations at risk of developing hypoalbuminemia. I found an article that mentioned severe protein malnutrition as a complication of bariatric surgery. The study explored the effectiveness of a recently established treatment of severe hypoalbuminemia for patients’ post-bariatric surgery. The study involved 11 participants who required treatment post-surgery for hypoalbuminemia.  The treatment implemented “continuous 24 h nasal-jejunal tube feeding of a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) formulation in combination with pancreatic enzyme supplementation every three hours” (Kuin et al., 2019).   The treatment effectively raised albumin levels and did not cause any negative side effects (Kuin et al., 2019).

 

References

Kuin, C., den Ouden, F., Brandts, H., Deden, L., Hazebroek, E., van Borren, M., & de Boer, H. (2019). Treatment of severe protein malnutrition after bariatric surgery. Obesity surgery29(10), 3095-3102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-019-04035-8

Li, T., Zhang, Y., Gong, C., Wang, J., Liu, B., Shi, L., & Duan, J. (2020). Prevalence of malnutrition and analysis of related factors in elderly patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-0642-

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
  • Evaluate the impact of the genetic environment on disease

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
  • Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents (pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
  • Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases
  • Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
  • Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
  • Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing
  • Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 10: Infection (pp. 289–303; stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
  • Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping)Summary Review
  • Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction); Summary Review
  • Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Module 1 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 1 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Discussion and Assignment. (4m)

 

Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology – Week 1 (14m)

 
Immunity and Inflammation

Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Soo, P. (2018, July 28). Pathophysiology Ch 10 alterations in immune function [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz0wx1-jTds

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 37 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #1

MedCram. (2012, April 28). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wMEMhvrQxE

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #2

MedCram. (2012, April 29). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly | 2 of 8 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmEeKVTpOKI

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Hyponatremia

MedCram. (2017, December 23). Hyponatremia explained clearly (remastered) – Electrolyte imbalances [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLajK5Vy55M

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student
  2. Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, or ISBN 9780323654395 (name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
  3. Complete the registration process.

To View the Content for This Text

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/
  2. Click on Student Site.
  3. Type in your username and password.
  4. Click on the Login button.
  5. Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
  6. Click on the name of the textbook for this course.
  7. Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
  8. Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).

Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Name: NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric
Grid View
List View
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting
45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
Answers all parts of the Discussion question(s) with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
40 (40%) – 44 (44%)
Responds to the Discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
35 (35%) – 39 (39%)
Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with two credible sources.

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.
0 (0%) – 34 (34%)
Does not respond to the Discussion question(s) adequately.

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible sources.

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.
Main Post: Timeliness
10 (10%) – 10 (10%)
Posts main post by Day 3.
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not post main post by Day 3.
First Response
17 (17%) – 18 (18%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
15 (15%) – 16 (16%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
13 (13%) – 14 (14%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.
0 (0%) – 12 (12%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Second Response
16 (16%) – 17 (17%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
14 (14%) – 15 (15%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
12 (12%) – 13 (13%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.
0 (0%) – 11 (11%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Participation
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
Total Points: 100
Name: NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric

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