Discussion 1: Evidence Base in Design NURS 6050

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Discussion 1: Evidence Base in Design NURS 6050

Discussion 1: Evidence Base in Design NURS 6050

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When politics and medical science intersect, there can be much debate. Sometimes anecdotes or hearsay are misused as evidence to support a particular point. Despite these and other challenges, however, evidence-based approaches are increasingly used to inform health policy decision-making regarding causes of disease, intervention strategies, and issues impacting society. One example is the introduction of childhood vaccinations and the use of evidence-based arguments surrounding their safety.

ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT:  Discussion 1: Evidence Base in Design NURS 6050  

RE: Discussion – Week 7

The Bill H. RES. 643 is an essential legislation that continues to allow women suffering from cardiovascular health conditions to be given effective healthcare especially when in critical conditions. In most cases, cardiovascular diseases contribute to the increase in healthcare costs and even mortalities (Coke & Hayman, 2019). Therefore, there was the need to enhance the quality of healthcare livery among the patients and particularly the women who were suffering from these conditions. Cardiovascular disease enhances the buildup of Non-diaysable protein associated with uraemic toxins that is cresyl and indoxly sulfates produced from the microbes obtained from the amino acids depending on diets that causes renal dysfunction.

The systematic hypertension, which is due to cardiovascular disease is normally transmitted to intra-glomerular capillary resulting to a condition of glomerulosclerosis thus impairing the renal function due to loss of kidney function (Baigent et al., 2016). With these complexities associated with the cardiovascular diseases, there was a need to develop policies to allow individuals, particularly women to have advanced clinical care in different healthcare system. In other words, the policy action to alleviate the risks of heart disease among women” was proposed by Representative Ayanna Pressley. Bill H. RES. 643 proposed the provision medical care to other factors which may complicate or lead to the cardiovascular diseases such as kidney diseases.

Cardiovascular diseases and kidney diseases have interrelationship in that cardiovascular disease can cause kidney disease and vice versa. Some of the conditions which are associated with cardiovascular diseases are hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Also, heart diseases are associated with cardiovascular diseases. Heart disease is the number one cause of death among women which lead with 400,000 deaths caused by heart disease and stroke along with ethnic group disparities. All these complications were incorporated in the Bill H. RES. 643 (Hsu et al., 2018) .

References

Coke, L. A., & Hayman, L. L. (2019) Women’s Awareness of Heart Disease and Risk: Two Steps Forward and One Step Back. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing36(1), 6-7. Retreved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33264233/

Hsu, C. Y., Ordonez, J. D., Chertow, G. M., Fan, D., McCulloch, C. E., & Go, A. S. (2018). The risk of acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney international,   74(1), 101-107. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.2008.107

Baigent, C., Landray, M. J., Reith, C., Emberson, J., Wheeler, D. C., Tomson, C.,& Neal, B.         (2016). The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in       patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomized          placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet, 377(9784), 2181-2192. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60739-3

In this Discussion, you will identify a recently proposed health policy and share your analysis of the evidence in support of this policy.

To Prepare:

Review the Congress website provided in the Resources and identify one recent (within the past 5 years) proposed health policy.
Review the health policy you identified and reflect on the background and development of this health policy.

Click here to ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT: Discussion 1: Evidence Base in Design NURS 6050
By Day 3 of Week 7

Post a description of the health policy you selected and a brief background for the problem or issue being addressed. Explain whether you believe there is an evidence base to support the proposed policy and explain why. Be specific and provide examples.

RE: Discussion – Week 7

Initial Post Week 7

      The recently proposed health policy I chose to discuss is H.R. 6201, Families First Coronavirus Response Act. The bill was introduced in the House on March 11, 2020, in response to the global pandemic, coronavirus (COVID-19). The bill was presented and signed into law on March 18, 2020 by President Trump. “This bill would guarantee free coronavirus testing, establish paid leave, enhance unemployment insurance, expand food security initiatives, and increase federal Medicaid funding” (Families First, 2020).

     On March 11, 2020, the day the bill was introduced, the coronavirus outbreak was considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). “Coronavirus (COVID-19) has created havoc amongst people of all nationalities with disturbingly rising counts of affected people worldwide” (Sukhminder, Rashi, Chashamjot, & Lalit, 2020). The first outbreak of COVID-19 was in Wuhan, China. As of April 4, 2020, “the United States has approximately 277,205 positive cases, with 6,593 deaths” (CDC, 2020). The sad reality is the increase of COVID 19 cases daily. In the state of Maryland alone from Monday to Saturday there has been an increase of cases by almost 2,000 positive cases.

     With the data presented I believe there is significant reason to support the passing of the Families First Coronavirus Response Act. Working in healthcare at this time further supports my decision as I am privy to the devastating effects this virus has on patients, families, healthcare providers, and the world as a whole. Under the Families First Coronavirus Response Act individuals would benefit from free testing, paid leave, supplemental nutrition assistance, and emergency unemployment. In many states, orders have been placed to enforce social distancing, in efforts to prevent the transmission of COVID-19, which appears airborne, although labeled droplet. COVID 19 has caused many to be quarantined at home. If this bill had been rejected many Americans would be without pay, potentially causing loss of property, etc.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (April 4, 2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Cases in U.S. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html

H.R. 6201: Families First Coronavirus Response Act. (2020). Retrieved April 6, 2020, from https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/116/hr6201/summary

Sukhminder, B., Rashi, S., Chashamjot, B., & Lalit, M. (2020). Peri-operative and crtical care concerns in coronavirus pandemic. Retrieved from https://go-gale-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=T002&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=1&docId=GALE%7CA619288512&docType=Article&sort=Relevance&contentSegment=ZEAI-MOD1&prodId=EAIM&contentSet=GALE%7CA619288512&searchId=R1&userGroupName=minn4020&inPS=true

RE: Discussion – Week 7
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On February 13, 2020,  H.B. 5886- Vaping Prevention on College Campuses Act of 2020 was introduced to the House (Congress.gov, n.d.). Congressman Eliot Engel introduced the bill due to a recent spike of college students who are vaping. It instructs federal agencies such as the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services to create a toolkit to help colleges reduce e-cigarette use among their students. The kit includes; visual aids related to the hazards of e-cigarette use, teaching resources to prevent use, and a plan to stop use on campus. Additionally, a directory of providers that treat nicotine addiction will be included (Engel authors legislation to reduce vaping on college campuses, 2020).

E-cigarettes heat a liquid turning it into an aerosol that is inhaled into the lung. The fluid may contain substances such as nicotine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cannabinoid (CBD) oils, flavoring, and additives. In January 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported 2,668 hospitalizations or deaths related to e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Of those cases, thirty-seven percent were age eighteen to twenty-four years old (CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020).

In 2011, e-cigarette use among those aged eighteen to twenty-four was 6.9%; however, in 2014, the usage among this age group rose to 14.3%. This age group stated the main reason they began using e-cigarettes was due to peer pressure. Additionally, this age group believes that e-cigarette use is less detrimental than traditional cigarette use (Wallace & Roche, 2018).

Additional factors that make e-cigarette use popular among the youth include; advertising aimed at the youth, appealing flavors, easy to hide devices, and the ability to provide high levels of nicotine. While the ability to deliver high concentrations of nicotine is attractive to the youth, it is very harmful. Nicotine is very addictive and can impair brain development, which lasts through the mid-twenties (King, Jones, Baldwin, & Briss, 2020).

I believe there is enough evidence to support this bill. The number of injuries or deaths among college-aged students is staggering. The attitudes related to e-cigarettes are detrimental to the well-being of the youth. While the toolkit may not wholly stop e-cigarette use, hopefully, the information will make this age group stop and think about the lasting effects of e-cigarette use.

References

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Outbreak of lung injury associated with the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products. Retrieved April 5, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html

Congress.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2020, from https://www.congress.gov

Engel authors legislation to reduce vaping on college campuses. (2020). Retrieved April 5, 2020, from https://engel.house.gov/latest-news/engel-authors-legislation-to-reduce-vaping-on-college-campuses/

King, B., Jones, C., Baldwin, G., & Briss, P. (2020). The EVALI and youth vaping epidemics- implications for public health. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382(8), 689-691. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1916171

Wallace, L. & Roche, M. (2018). Vaping in contexts: Links among e-cigarette use, social status, and peer influence for college students. Journal of Drug Education, 48(1/2), 33-53. doi: 10.1177/0047237918807706
By Day 6 of Week 7

Respond to at least two of your colleagues* on two different days by either supporting or respectfully challenging their explanation on whether there is an evidence base to support the proposed health policy they described.

*Note: Throughout this program, your fellow students are referred to as colleagues.

RE: Discussion – Week 7
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Response 1

Hi Jennifer, your post caught my attention, this is a topic of conversation in our county’s community health initiative. A recent study conducted in my county showed that a large percentage middle school and high school children were vaping. This has become a quickly rising epidemic for our youth. E-cigarettes were initially designed to be an alternative to assist smokers in smoking cessation, however most users do not make the transition to cessation (Buus, Alzoubaidi & Jamous, 2019). Evidence is showing that e-cigarettes are causing harm to users, creating adverse effects on lung tissues and cardiovascular toxicity (Buus, Alzoubaidi & Jamous, 2019).

The CDC statistics are staggering.  In the United States, sixty-eight deaths have occurred due to vaping as of February 2020 (CDC, 2020). The majority of users are male, the median age is 24 years old (CDC, 2020). These statistics are worrisome, especially when we know it is affecting our children. I absolutely support the H.R. 5886 Bill-Vaping Prevention on College Campuses Act of 2020. I believe that this should be amended to include middle and high school prevention as well. Prevention must begin early on if it is going to be effective.

Discussion 1: Evidence Base in Design NURS 6050

Reference

Buus, D., Alzoubaidi, M., & Jamous, F. (2019). Vaping Induced Lung Injury: A Case Report. South Dakota Medicine : The Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association, 72(10), 446–449.

 

CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). Outbreak of Lung Injury Associated with the Use of E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Products. Retrieved on April 6, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html
Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 7 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 7

To participate in this Discussion:

Week 7 Discussion

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Rubric Detail

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Content
Name: NURS_6050_Module04_Week08_Discussion_Rubric

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Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting
Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Points Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)
Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)
Responds to some of the discussion question(s).

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with two credible sources.

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 34 (34%)
Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately.

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible sources.

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.
Main Post: Timeliness
Points Range: 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)
Posts main post by day 3.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not post by day 3.
First Response
Points Range: 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 15 (15%) – 16 (16%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 13 (13%) – 14 (14%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 12 (12%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Second Response
Points Range: 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 12 (12%) – 13 (13%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 11 (11%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Participation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
Total Points: 100
Name: NURS_6050_Module04_Week08_Discussion_Rubric

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