Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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cost-effectiveness analysis, and ROI with educational inter- ventions. Within this article, updated literature shows greater reporting in publications, but disseminating more economic impact of educational interventions will contrib- ute to the body of evidence regarding the value of pro- fessional development activities. NPD practitioners routinely measure the impact of education interventions but seldom addressed the financial impact. More consistent measuring and reporting of the financial and clinical impact of NPD activities is warranted.

References Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. (2014). Saving lives and

savingmoney:Hospital-acquired conditionsupdate. Interimdata fromnational efforts tomake care safer 2010Y2014 (p. 13, Exhibit A3).

TABLE 2 Updated Known Costs of Outcomes Table 2018, Continued Conditions Recent Cost Estimate References Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)

Estimated extra cost per case in 2015: $47,238

VAP represents 1/4 of all ICU-acquired pneumonia infections.Meta-analysis: 13 studies. HAP/VAP added 8.37 days to the ICU LOS (N= 11). The pooled hospital costs attributable to HAP for all international settings were $28,008. In 2 U.S./Canadian studies, the excess costs were higher ($65,589) Median treatment costs per outpatient episode: $346 (range $195Y$551). Median costs per inpatient episode: $4,851 (range $3,313Y$7,669) High risk: $2,464Y$5,885 with invasive ventilation; $2,386Y$5,739 with noninvasive ventilation; $40Y$248 postdischarge cost Moderate risk: $852Y$2,678; $34Y$207 postdischarge cost

AHRQ (2017)

Kalsekar, Amsden, Kothari, Shorr, & Zilberber (2010)

Konomura, Nagai, & Akazawa (2017)

Tumanan-Mendoza, Mendoza, Punzalan, Reganit, & Bacolcol (2015)

Violence-workplace Violence intervention (hospital- based)

Hospital-centered violence intervention

Savings of $4,100 for 100 individuals Average hospital costs postrecidivism (base case): $6,513 (range $1,996Y$100,000) Cost of VIP: $2,810 Average hospital costs postrecidivism with standard referrals: $18,722

Juillard & Smith (2015)

Chong et al. (2015)

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci

Mean cost per patient: CAN$13,949Y$21,464

Valiquette, Chakra, & Laupland (2014)

Venous thromboembolism post op

Postopvenous thromboembolism

Estimated extra cost per case in 2015: $17,367

Estimated extra hospitalization cost: $8000

AHRQ (2017), ‘‘Exhibit 7. Summary of meta-analysis additional cost estimates’’ AHRQ (2014)

Wellness screening Flu vaccine, metabolic syndrome

Per Wellness Council of America: $100Y$150/employee/year to promote wellness Add another $300 per employee annually if incentives and health coaching are included

Hall (2011)

Note. ADE = Adverse Drug Event; ADHD = Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; AHRQ = Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality; COPD = Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ; ED = Emergency Department; Int$ = International US dollars; IP = Inpatient; NIH = National Institutes for Health; OP= Outpatient; ROI = return on investment.

310 www.jnpdonline.com November/December 2018

Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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