Assignment: Transthoracic Echocardiography

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Assignment: Transthoracic Echocardiography

Assignment: Transthoracic Echocardiography

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For example, epidural anesthesia can lead to suppression of renin release as a positive response to development of arterial hypotension (Lee et al., 2015). Additionally, reduction of anesthesia to the sympathetic tone in the vascular capacitance causes a decrease of intravascular volume (Lee et al., 2015). This reduces the blood pressure during administration of anesthesia because the angiotensin II activity is suppressed by a competitive inhibitor (de Waal et al., 2015). On the other hand, endogenous vasopressin is directly involved in blood pressure control with the aid of receptors concerned with vasoconstriction (de Waal et al., 2015).

Secondly, blood pressure is created as a compromise from cardiac impact and systemic vascular tone (de Waal et al., 2015). As such, its regulation is influenced by the heart rate, stroke volume of the LV and its resistance. Anesthesia blunts the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which has a major role in blood pressure regulation. Where the SNS has blocked, RAS is required to improve the situation after anesthesia has been administered (European Society of Cardiology, 2014). Therefore, anesthesia causes a decrease in blood pressure, which results from the activity of RAS blockade and antagonism from V1 receptors (European Society of Cardiology, 2014).

Anesthesia and Antihypertensive Drugs. The effects caused to the SNS results to administration of different management approaches. For example, propofol has a major impact to the level of vascular reactivity, which reduces the response of the vascular tissue to vasopressin. In hypertension patients, this level of antagonism is amplified (de Waal et al., 2015). Also, refractory hypotension has been linked to propofol effect in the body. Consequently, chronic treatment should be given during surgery.

Management of Hypertension Patients . It is important that the stage of hypertension should be determined by an anesthetist before surgery is undertaken. Patients treated with severe anti-hypertensive drugs can be considered to be at higher risk of developing hemodynamic uncertainty (Lee et al., 2015). Secondly, it is important to identify the damage caused to end-organs to form the basis of grading patients. Here, transthoracic echocardiography can be used evaluate LV hypertrophy to reduce risk of LV unpriming (European Society of Cardiology, 2014).


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