Assignment: Text Message Medium

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Assignment: Text Message Medium

Assignment: Text Message Medium

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Can You be Safe?

• No, unless the information is permanently inaccessible • “You cannot make a computer secure” – from Dain Gary,

former CERT chief

• 97% of all firms have been breached

• Sometimes security makes systems less usable

© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc. 13

What Motivates the Hackers?

• Sell stolen credit card numbers for up to $50 each • 2 million Target card numbers were sold for $20 each

on average • Street gang members can usually get $400 out of a

card • Some “kits” (card number plus SSN plus medical

information) sell for up to $1,000 • They allow opening new account cards

• Stolen cards can be sold for bitcoin on the Deep Web

© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc. 14

What Should Management Do?

• Security strategy

• Infrastructure • Access tools * • Storage and transmission tools *

• Security policies *

• Training *

• Investments

* Described next

© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc. 15

Access Tools

Access Tool Ubiquity Advantages Disadvantages

Physical locks Very high • Excellent if guarded

• Locks can be picked • Physical Access is often not

needed • Keys can be lost

Passwords Very high • User acceptance and familiarity

• Ease of use • Mature practices

• Poor by themselves • Sometimes forgotten • Sometimes stolen from users

using deception or key loggers

Biometrics Medium • Can be reliable • Never forgotten • Cannot be stolen • Can be


• False positives/negatives • Some are expensive • Some might change (e.g., voice) • Lost limbs • Loopholes (e.g., photo)

© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc. 16

Access Tools (continued) Access Tool Ubiquity Advantages Disadvantages

Challenge questions

Medium (high in banking)

• Not forgotten • Multitude of

questions can be used

• Social networking might reveal some answers

• Personal knowledge of an individual might reveal the answers

• Spelling might not be consistent

Token Low • Stolen passkey is useless quickly

• Requires carrying a device

Text message Medium • Stolen passkey is useless

• Mobile phone already owned by users

• Useful as a secondary mechanism too

Requires mobile phone ownership by all users

• Home phone option requires speech synthesis

• Requires alternative access control if mobile phone lost

Multi-factor authentication

Medium • Stolen password is useless

• Enhanced security

• Requires an additional technique if one of the two fails

• Temptation for easy password © 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc. 17

Storage and Transmission Tools Tool Ubiquity Advantages Disadvantages

Antivirus/ antispyware

Very high • Blocks many known threats • Blocks some “zero-day”


• Slow down operating system • “Zero day” threats can be


Firewall High • Can prevent some targeted traffic

• Can only filter known threats • Can have well-known “holes”

System logs Very high • Can reveal IP address of attacker

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