Assignment: Self-induced Vomiting

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Assignment: Self-induced Vomiting

Assignment: Self-induced Vomiting

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• Diagnostic criteria – restriction of calorie intake resulting in a below normal body

weight level for age and height

Diagnosing Anorexia Nervosa (APA, 2013)

• There are Two subtypes of AN: 1. Restricting type: a reduction in total food intake without binge-

eating or purging behavior 2. Binging eating/purging type: regularly engaging in self-induced

vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas 3. Can also be characterized by a combination of the 2:

• An individual with anorexia has an appetite; he/she just tries to control it. It is very difficult when a person is starving not to want to eat. What happens to many individuals is that they lose control

• Other characteristics – significant disturbance in the perception of the shape or size of his or

her body – exercising compulsively – developing unusual habits such as refusing to eat in front of others

Diagnosing Bulimia Nervosa (APA, 2013)

• A serious, potentially life-threatening mental health disorder characterized by:

1. frequent episodes of binge eating. . . • eating, in a short period of time (e.g., within any 2-hour period),

an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances

AND • a sense of impaired control over eating during the episode (e.g.,

a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating)

2. . . .followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors, such as self-induced vomiting, to avoid weight gain.

• On average, episodes must occur at least once a week for 3 months.

Diagnosing a Binge Episode (APA, 2013)

• Indicators of impaired control – eat too quickly, even when he or she is not hungry – feelings of guilt, embarrassment, or disgust after overeating – eat alone to hide the behavior because of embarrassment

over how much one is eating – eating until feeling uncomfortably full – eating large amounts of food when not hungry

• Types of compensatory behaviors following a binge eposode – Purging:

• self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas – Non-purging:

• use of medications, fasting, or excessive exercise

Diagnosing Bulimia Nervosa (APA, 2013)

• Increased frequency of depressive symptoms and Mood Disorders (particularly Dysthymic Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder)

• Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight, but individuals typically are within the normal weight range, although some may be slightly underweight or overweight

• The disturbance does not occur exclusively during episodes of AN.

Comparison of AN and BN

• Common Causes: – “The etiology of AN and BN is presumed

to be complex and multiple, influenced by developmental, social, and biological processes the exact nature of which remain poorly understood.” (Treasure and Campbell, 1994)

Comparison of AN and BN (APA, 2013)

• Common characteristics – Both are NOT about food

• Food is an instrument, not a cause. Both have more to do with

– deep social, psychological and emotional issues – profound feelings of lack of control – Brain chemistry

• Different Characteristics – AN individuals- resistance to maintaining body

weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height

– BN Individuals- typically are within the normal weight range for their age and height

Prevalence of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa (APA, 2013)

• Prevalence – Most common in young adolescent females

between 15 and 19 years old – 7 % of all cases are male – Occurs more frequently in industrialized

societies, in which • there is an abundance of food • being considered attractive is linked to being thin,

especially for females Immigrants from cultures in which the disorder is

rare who emigrate to cultures in which the disorder is more prevalent may develop Anorexia Nervosa as thin-body ideals are assimilated.

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