Assignment: Domain of Inquiry.

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Assignment: Domain of Inquiry.

Assignment: Domain of Inquiry.

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FIGURE 1. Leininger’s Sunrise Model to Depict Dimensions of the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality.

1. Care is the essence of nursing and a distinct, dominant, cen- tral, and unifying focus.

2. Culturally based care (caring) is essential for well-being, health, growth, survival, and in facing handicaps or death.

3. Culturally based care is the most comprehensive, holistic, and particularistic means to know, explain, interpret, and predict beneficial congruent care practices.

4. Culturally based caring is essential to curing and healing, as there can be no curing without caring, although caring can oc- cur without curing.

5. Culture care concepts, meanings, expressions, patterns, pro- cesses, and structural forms vary transculturally, with diversi- ties (differences) and some universalities (commonalties).

Four major tenets were formulated to systematically examine the theory with the researcher’s stated domain of inquiry (DOI) and the ethnonursing method. An example of a DOI would be “the study of care meanings, values, and expressions of Mexican rural families with cancer.” Every word in this DOI is studied in-depth using the four theory ten- ets, which are (a) culturally based care has diversities (differ- ences or variabilities) and some universal (common) features; (b) worldview, cultural, and social structure factors and others in the Sunrise Model influence care outcomes related to cul- turally congruent care; (c) genericemic(lay, folk, or indige- nous) practices and professionaleticnursing practices influ- ence care practice outcomes; (d) the three predicted theoreti- cal modes for transcultural care actions and decisions are, namely, culture care preservation and/or maintenance, cul- ture care accommodation and/or negotiation, and culture care repatterning and/or restructuring to provide culturally con- gruent and beneficial care. Besides the Sunrise Model, other ethnonursing enablers are used to rigorously examine the the- ory tenets.


The ethnonursing research method was specifically designed by the theorist to provide in-depth study of the domain of inquiry. Covert and embedded care and culture data could be teased out with the enablers. Although other nurse theorists were borrowing quantitative methods and tools, I found that these modes failed to tap rich and meaning- ful emic and etic data and that cultural care beliefs and lifeways could not be manipulated and measured meaning- fully.

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