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Assignment: Discuss Integumentary system

Assignment: Discuss Integumentary system

Assignment: Discuss Integumentary system

NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT: Assignment: Discuss Integumentary system


1. Discuss word root, prefix, suffix, and combining form in relation to determining the meaning of medical terms.

2. Explain how the phonetically spelled pronunciation guide aids you to pronounce medical words or phrases correctly. Give at least 3 examples of medical words that would have a different meaning if pronounced incorrectly. What effect could mispronouncing these 3 words have on patients?

3. Describe the major organs within the integumentary system, how they work together to perform the major functions of the system, and at least 2 illnesses related to the system.

Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

Describe several different diseases and disorders of the skin
Describe the effect of injury to the skin and the process of healing

The integumentary system is susceptible to a variety of diseases, disorders, and injuries. These range from annoying but relatively benign bacterial or fungal infections that are categorized as disorders, to skin cancer and severe burns, which can be fatal. In this section, you will learn several of the most common skin conditions.

One of the most talked about diseases is skin cancer. Cancer is a broad term that describes diseases caused by abnormal cells in the body dividing uncontrollably. Most cancers are identified by the organ or tissue in which the cancer originates. One common form of cancer is skin cancer. The Skin Cancer Foundation reports that one in five Americans will experience some type of skin cancer in their lifetime. The degradation of the ozone layer in the atmosphere and the resulting increase in exposure to UV radiation has contributed to its rise. Overexposure to UV radiation damages DNA, which can lead to the formation of cancerous lesions. Although melanin offers some protection against DNA damage from the sun, often it is not enough. The fact that cancers can also occur on areas of the body that are normally not exposed to UV radiation suggests that there are additional factors that can lead to cancerous lesions.

In general, cancers result from an accumulation of DNA mutations. These mutations can result in cell populations that do not die when they should and uncontrolled cell proliferation that leads to tumors. Although many tumors are benign (harmless), some produce cells that can mobilize and establish tumors in other organs of the body; this process is referred to as metastasis. Cancers are characterized by their ability to metastasize.
Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma is a form of cancer that affects the mitotically active stem cells in the stratum basale of the epidermis. It is the most common of all cancers that occur in the United States and is frequently found on the head, neck, arms, and back, which are areas that are most susceptible to long-term sun exposure. Although UV rays are the main culprit, exposure to other agents, such as radiation and arsenic, can also lead to this type of cancer. Wounds on the skin due to open sores, tattoos, burns, etc. may be predisposing factors as well. Basal cell carcinomas start in the stratum basale and usually spread along this boundary. At some point, they begin to grow toward the surface and become an uneven patch, bump, growth, or scar on the skin surface (Figure 1). Like most cancers, basal cell carcinomas respond best to treatment when caught early. Treatment options include surgery, freezing (cryosurgery), and topical ointments (Mayo Clinic 2012).